Section 1

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Apathetics

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Last updated

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Date created

Mar 1, 2020

Cards (186)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Apathetics

Front

Milbrath and Goel- the non-participants who never participate and have no interest in politics.

Back

Ethnicity

Front

A person's origins- can influence their vote.

Back

Voluntary Participation

Front

Voters have the choice, usually in democracies, whether they participate in politics.

Back

Grey Vote

Front

The over-65 vote is important due to the high turnout in elections.

Back

Pluralism

Front

Rule by many- power is shared amongst diverse and competing organisations.

Back

Turnout

Front

The percentage of the electorate that cast a vote in elections.

Back

Third Parties

Front

Parties other than Conservative and Labour- they are growing in size and importance.

Back

Adversary Politics

Front

Politics where the major parties are in disagreement on issues. This is usually caused by ideological differences.

Back

Boomerang Effect

Front

People voting against the parties that are predicted to win an election in opinion polls.

Back

Socialism

Front

A left wing ideology that believe in collectivism and equality. The foundations of Old Labour.

Back

Political Party

Front

An organisation of people who share the same ideological beliefs and are aiming to win elections and form governments. They publish their intentions in manifestos.

Back

Alienation

Front

When the electorate feels distant or separated from those that are elected to represent them.

Back

Middle England

Front

The area where politicians focus- attempts to occupy the middle ground of all factors.

Back

Media

Front

Publishing, broadcasting and other forms of political communication, that now dictates the information that the electorate hear.

Back

Volatility

Front

The changing nature of voting habits- post-1970s have seen an increase due to partisan dealignment and alienation with the major parties.

Back

Class Dealignment

Front

The movement away from distinct association with a particular social class.

Back

Indirect Democracy

Front

Representatives elect officials to make decisions on their behalf. E.g. UK FPTP

Back

Social Class

Front

The distinction between groups in society based on income, wealth and wage. E.g. upper, lower and middle.

Back

Spectators

Front

Milbrath and Goel- majority of the population whose participation is limited to voting.

Back

Capitalism

Front

Free enterprise- production is privately owned and profit is what drives business.

Back

Bandwagon Effect

Front

In opinion polls, when people vote the way that the opinion polls are showing.

Back

Whips

Front

Officials who manage votes in the House of Commons, and maintain discipline and unity.

Back

Partisan Alignment

Front

Long-term affiliation with a particular political party.

Back

Forced Participation

Front

Usually in dictatorships, voters do not have a choice regarding their participation.

Back

Spin Doctors

Front

Party consultants who change the way that the public perceive an event- encourages favourable media reporting.

Back

Floating Voters

Front

Politicians' targets in elections due to their ability to be won over.

Back

Gladiators

Front

Milbrath and Goel- small percentage of the population that are keen participants and activists.

Back

Participation

Front

Engagement of the population in the political process.

Back

Elitism

Front

Power is held in a small group of elite politicians.

Back

Partisan Dealignment

Front

The movement away from strong party affiliations, since the 1970s.

Back

Class Alignment

Front

Strong affiliations with a particular social class in society.

Back

Loans for Peerages

Front

2006 political scandal involving the Blair administration. Illegal connection between donations and loans to parties, and seats in the House of Lords.

Back

Direct Democracy

Front

Citizens themselves made the decisions. E.g. Referendums

Back

Apathy

Front

The reluctance to participate in any way- lack of enthusiasm or interest.

Back

Electorate

Front

All those qualified to vote.

Back

By-Elections

Front

Elections held in the middle of a parliamentary term when an MP dies or resigns or leaves their seat for some other reason. There is a long history of volatility.

Back

Abstain

Front

To make the conscious decision not to vote. This can be chosen or due to circumstances.

Back

Party System

Front

The stable pattern of politics and parties in a country- the way they interact with each other and the public.

Back

Political Spectrum

Front

The range of opinions and ideologies that political parties follow. It ranges from the far left to the far right.

Back

Communism

Front

A left-wing ideology that seeks a classless system and common ownership.

Back

Campaign

Front

In the weeks leading up to the election, parties and individuals attempt to win over floating voters.

Back

Devolved Assemblies

Front

National parliaments in Scotland, Ireland and Wales.

Back

Referendums

Front

A vote of the people on a single issue. E.g. Scottish Independence 2014

Back

Franchise

Front

The right to vote.

Back

Open Government

Front

A non-secretive government who are widely thought to be accountable to the electorate.

Back

Pressure Groups

Front

Organisations that do not stand for election, but aim to exert political pressure by other means.

Back

Ideology

Front

A set of beliefs and core values that people believe. These are central politics and are the basis of modern day political parties.

Back

Catch-all

Front

Parties who attempt to appeal to the maximum amount of voters. Centralisation is an impact of this.

Back

Consensus Politics

Front

Politics where the parties are in broad agreement over an issue or the handling of something.

Back

Legitimate

Front

A system of government where the government is responsible to the people, and the people accept the government's rule.

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

National Policy Forum

Front

184 members of the Labour Party, from different areas, that oversee the development of policy.

Back

Third Way

Front

Middle path between left and right wing- between socialism and capitalism.

Back

New Right

Front

Thatcher's approach to the conservatism- a move away from One Nation. Bend of traditionalism liberal politics. The Free Market is essential.

Back

Thatcherism

Front

The approach to politics adopted by Margaret Thatcher- market-based economic system with emphasis on lower taxation and competition.

Back

Electoral College

Front

A mechanism used to elect people to office- individual members represent areas of the party and their wishes.

Back

Flexible

Front

Uncodified constitutions are easy to change because there is a one tier legal system.

Back

Quangos

Front

Quasi Autonomous Non-Governmental Organisations- publicly funded bodies that operate alongside government departments.

Back

Mixed Economy

Front

An economy where there is recognised need and role for both private and public enterprise.

Back

Acts of Parliament

Front

Laws passed by the legislature that become part of the constitution, after they have gone through Royal Assent.

Back

Constitution

Front

A document that establishes the fundamental principles for which a nation or body is governed.

Back

Party Conference

Front

Traditionally the most important annual party meeting, that decides the party's agenda and direction.

Back

Human Rights Act

Front

Passed in 1998- the law that incorporated the EU convention into UK law.

Back

Uncodified

Front

A constitution that is not all written down in the same document/ not all written down. E.g. UK

Back

Judicial

Front

Branch of government responsible for deciding whether laws are constitutional or not. E.g. Supreme Court

Back

Legislature

Front

The branch of government responsible for passing laws and scrutinising the government/leader. E.g. Parliament/Congress

Back

Legal System

Front

One tier means that all laws are changed in the same way, but two tier means that there are entrenched provisions that requires a different process for passing laws.

Back

Separation of Powers

Front

The three branches are separate (written in the constitution), meaning that power cannot be overly concentrated in a single individual or body. E.g. USA

Back

One Nation Conservatism

Front

Traditions of the Conservative Party- Disraeli's foundation. Broad appeal to all groups in society.

Back

Clause IV

Front

Part of the Labour 1918 Constitution that initially established the socialist aspect of the party.

Back

Fusion of Powers

Front

The three branches of government are not separate. E.g. UK where the executive sits in the legislature.

Back

Bill of Rights

Front

A 1689 that is the foundation of constitution law, it is now less relevant due to the HRA of 1998.

Back

Codified

Front

A constitution that is all written down in one single document. E.g. USA

Back

Freedom of Information Act

Front

The 2005 act that gives citizens the right to more access to information about the country and the government.

Back

Representation

Front

An MPs function- acting upon the views of their constituents and party.

Back

Federal

Front

A government where power is devolved from the central government- the written constitution states that state or provincial governments have certain powers.

Back

Charter 88

Front

A pressure group that pushes for electoral and constitutional reform .

Back

Royal Prerogative

Front

The powers that are passed onto the PM by the monarch (part of common law).

Back

European Law

Front

The UK accepted this when it became part of the European Community in 1975.

Back

Short Money

Front

Subsidy designed to help opposition parties to compensate for the lack of civil service help.

Back

Hung Parliament

Front

When an election results in no party having a majority- forcing a coalition or minority government.

Back

Unitary

Front

All power is concentrated on a national level, in the central government.

Back

Elective Dictatorship

Front

The name given to the imbalance of power that the executive has, and their stranglehold over the country from a majority and whips.

Back

Big Tent

Front

Politics that attempts to capture as many voters as possible, without strict adherence to any specific ideology.

Back

Executive

Front

The branch of government responsible for directing laws, national affairs and policies- UK government/ President.

Back

Thatcher

Front

Longest serving PM. Conservative Mp from 1979-90 (overthrown by her cabinet).

Back

Parliamentary Private Secretaries

Front

MPs appointed to be an unpaid assistant to ministers.

Back

Legislation

Front

The primary function of parliament- passing laws.

Back

Pragmatic

Front

Practical, non-deological and adjusting to what is best for the country at any moment in time.

Back

Parliamentary Labour Party

Front

The overall name for the Labour MPs in the House of Commons.

Back

Nationalisation

Front

Bringing industries and companies under public ownership.

Back

Rigid

Front

Codified constitutions have entrenched provisions that are harder to change.

Back

Accountability

Front

When the government is answering to the public- key element in a representative democracy.

Back

Convention

Front

Unwritten traditions that are the normal governmental practice. E.g. Responsibility, the speaker

Back

Egalitarian

Front

Someone who believes in equality for all of mankind.

Back

1911 Parliament Act

Front

Removed the House of Lords' power to veto legislation passed in the House of Commons.

Back

Liberalism

Front

A central ideology that believes in equality.

Back

1949 Parliament Act

Front

Further decreased the House of Lords' power- can only delay for one year now.

Back

Autocracy

Front

Rule by an individual that is unrestricted and unlimited.

Back

Privatisation

Front

The opposite of nationalisation- private ownership.

Back

Conservatism

Front

A right wing ideology. The basis of the Conservative Party.

Back

Section 3

(50 cards)

Fixed Term Parliament

Front

2011 Act of Parliament that declares a parliamentary term to be five years.

Back

Winter of Discontent

Front

1979 crisis that led to the downfall of the Callaghan government, and paved the way for the Conservative government.

Back

Conventions

Front

Traditions that are unwritten, but form part of the constitution, for example the speaker.

Back

Merchant Shipping Act

Front

1988 Act of Parliament that was overturned by the European Court.

Back

Falklands

Front

1982-3 War which made Thatcher appear strong.

Back

Standing Committees

Front

House of Commons committees that scrutinise particular bills, clause by clause. They comprise of MPs from all parties. Also called Public Bill Committees.

Back

Career Politicians

Front

People who have always had the intention of becoming politics, and have no real world experience.

Back

Private Members' Bills

Front

Introduced by backbench MPs on a specific issue that might be present in their constituency. E.g. 1967 Abortion Act

Back

Robin Cook

Front

Resigned from the Cabinet in 2003 over Iraqi involvement under Tony Blair.

Back

Lords Temporal

Front

Lords that are given life peers, rather than inheriting their peerages.

Back

Devolution Acts

Front

The 1997 acts passed, following referendums, by New Labour, that gave further autonomy to Scotland and Wales.

Back

Core Executive

Front

The network of institutions at the heart of the British government, including the Cabinet, the PM and the offices.

Back

Works of Authority

Front

Bagehot, Erskine May and Dicey's writings that fill the gaps of our uncodified constitution.

Back

Patronage

Front

Granting favours or rewards- loyalty is incentivised.

Back

Departmental Select Committees

Front

19 Committees responsible for overseeing governmental departments.

Back

White Paper

Front

A document in front of the Commons that outlines the proposals on a specific issue.

Back

Hereditary Peers

Front

Peerages that are inherited due to family titles. These were reduced to a maximum of 92 in 1999 due to the House of Lords Act.

Back

Civil Servants

Front

An unelected body that helps the government run efficiently.

Back

Lords Spiritual

Front

26 Bishops that sit in the House of Lords

Back

Common Law

Front

Source of the constitution based on customs, principles and traditions. E.g. rights and freedoms assumed prior to the Human Rights Act.

Back

Parliamentary Sovereignty

Front

Key principle of the British Constitution- the UK parliament has supreme legal authority.

Back

Privy Council

Front

Comprises all members of the Cabinet and distinguished members by the monarch,

Back

UKIP

Front

Political party that came second in 125 constituencies in 2015, and are always successful in European elections. Their only policy is removal of the UK from the EU.

Back

Wright Reforms

Front

2010 committee that changed the way that parliamentary procedures are carried out, e.g. select committee chairman reforms.

Back

Cabinet Government

Front

Cabinet acts as a collective, all with equal influence, other than the PM who is the 'first amongst equals'. It is consulted about all decisions.

Back

Jacqui Smith

Front

Home secretary who resigned in 2009 due to the expenses scandal.

Back

90 Day Detention

Front

Blair's first defeat in the House of Commons.

Back

Bureaucracy

Front

The idea that there is government by non-elected and paid officials who are not representative of government opinion.

Back

Iraq

Front

2002-3 War that made Blair look very weak- contributed to the downfall of the New Labour government.

Back

Alistair Campbell

Front

Blair's famous political adviser- his press secretary.

Back

Public Bills

Front

Bills that affect the whole country- passed by parliament and binding for everyone.

Back

New Labour

Front

With the removal of Clause IV, the relaunch of the labour under Tony Blair- move away from the extreme left wing policies of the 1980s.

Back

Public Accounts Committee

Front

Examines the spending of parliamentary money.

Back

PMQs

Front

1 thirty minute session where the opposition is given the chance to scrutinise the government. This used to be 2 x 15 minutes, but Blair changed it.

Back

David Mellor

Front

Famous minister that had an affair, leading to their resignation in 1992.

Back

Syria Intervention

Front

2013 Cameron defeat- first defeat over going to war in the House of Commons.

Back

Salisbury Convention

Front

The House of Lords is unable to delay any manifesto legislation passed in the House of Commons.

Back

Supreme Court

Front

Established in 2009 from a constitutional reform act passed in 2005.

Back

Ian Duncan Smith

Front

2016 Work and Pensions resignation due to disability cuts.

Back

Prime Ministerial Government

Front

The PM has become increasingly important and often at as in individual, with power concentrated in their hands.

Back

Policy Unit

Front

Set up in 1974 to rival the civil service.

Back

Opposition

Front

The second largest party in the House of Commons that is responsible for scrutinising the government.

Back

Labour Leadership Election

Front

Process to elect new leaders of Labour. This changed in 2011 to OMOV from an electoral college system.

Back

Poll Tax

Front

1989 Tax introduced by Thatcher without the Cabinet's approval, meaning that her Cabinet turned on her, contributing to her downfall.

Back

Presidentialisation

Front

The theory that the PM is acting more like a president would- increased executive power.

Back

Constitutional Monarchy

Front

The UK's governmental theory, that the monarch is head of state through common law and convention, but powers are transferred to the PM.

Back

Green Paper

Front

A document laid to the House of Commons that set out options that might be pursued- outlining and opening up for opinions.

Back

Rule of Law

Front

The principle that laws passed by the House of Commons apply to everyone evenly and equally.

Back

Michael Heseltine

Front

Resignation in 1985, due to Thatcher refusing to hear his appeal in a Cabinet meeting.

Back

Cabinet Committees

Front

Appointed by the PM to deal with parliamentary and governmental business. They have the authority of cabinet decisions.

Back

Section 4

(36 cards)

Scottish Independence

Front

2014 Referendum to see if the Scottish population wanted to leave the UK. 55% Remain.

Back

General Elections

Front

An election to choose representatives to sit in the House of Commons.

Back

Jenkins Commission

Front

1997 Electoral Commission established by New Labour, to find out the weaknesses of FPTP, and to recommend solutions.

Back

Devolved Elections

Front

The electorate in Scotland, Ireland and Wales to elect representatives to the devolved assemblies.

Back

Single Transferable Vote

Front

Used for local, devolved and European elections in Northern Ireland- favourite system for electoral reform groups.

Back

Electoral Reform

Front

Pushing for advancement and change to the constitutional and way that representatives are elected.

Back

Local Elections

Front

Local council representatives are elected.

Back

Democracy

Front

Rule by the people based on political participation and equality. Decisions are made by the people, and everyone has the same opportunity influence these decisions.

Back

Constituency Link

Front

Majoritarian systems create a relationship between constituents and their elected representatives in the legislature.

Back

Secret Ballot

Front

Voting is private and protected from public scrutiny.

Back

Representatives

Front

A person who makes decisions on behalf of the electorate- not necessarily always in the constituent's wishes. E.g. Lidington HS2.

Back

Jo Moore

Front

A civil servant who said that 9/11 was 'A good day to bury bad news'. She resigned and her minister did as well.

Back

European Elections

Front

The electorate are able to elect representatives to the European Parliament.

Back

Majoritarian

Front

An electoral system with single-member constituencies where the candidate with the most votes wins.

Back

Closed List

Front

Parties have a list of candidates that would become MPs after an election. The number of candidates won depends on the number of votes one.

Back

Quota

Front

A certain amount of votes that someone needs to win the election.

Back

Delegate

Front

A person who is chosen to act upon the people they represent's views, and convey their opinions.

Back

Participation crisis

Front

The theory that the increase in apathy and decrease in participation is having a detrimental impact on UK democracy.

Back

Popular Vote

Front

The total number of votes received by a party.

Back

Mandate

Front

The authority of the government to carry out its programme based on manifesto promises.

Back

Additional Member System

Front

A hybrid system that has the benefits of both FPTP and proportional systems. The electorate is able to vote for both parties and candidates- leads to two tier politicians. Used in Scotland and Wales devolved elections.

Back

Coalition

Front

Forced by a hung parliament- a formal agreement by two parties to form a government.

Back

Minority Government

Front

When no party wins a government in a general election, so does not have the support of the the House of Commons.

Back

FPTP

Front

The electoral system used in the UK- it normally results in a two party system and creates a stable government. Used in UK general elections.

Back

Party-Identification Theory

Front

The voting theory that voters have an attachment o a particular party, and have strong affiliations.

Back

Political Advisers

Front

Unelected officials that rival the civil service, and give bias information to PMs/ Ministers.

Back

Supplementary Vote

Front

Used in the London Mayoral elections, an alternative of AV- second preferences are used if no one candidate wins outright.

Back

Good Friday Agreement

Front

Agreement reached between British and Irish governments in 1998.

Back

Electoral Commission

Front

Established the PPERA Act of 2000. This is an independent body that examines the democratic process in the UK.

Back

Proportional

Front

An electoral system with multi-member constituencies where the number of seats a party obtains directly relates to the percent of seats one.

Back

Alternative Vote

Front

Voters mark in order of preference, where the bottom candidate is eliminated if no candidate wins outright.

Back

Issue Voting

Front

Voters who look at a party's policies, and vote for the party that is most likely to benefit them.

Back

Manifesto

Front

A document produced prior to an election campaign, outlining a party's programme and intentions for government.

Back

Hybrid System

Front

An electoral system where it is partially proportional and partially majoritarian.

Back

Sociological Theory

Front

The voting theory that the socio-economic situation of a voter can influence which party they vote for.

Back

Petition

Front

A document that people sign to register their opinion on a specific matter. If this gets 100 000 then parliament are forced to consider it.

Back