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Cards (237)

Section 1

(50 cards)

ion

Front

an atom which has either gained or lost electrons

Back

rutherfords experiment

Front

fired alpha particles at gold foil and observed how they scattered; concluded that all of the positive charge was concentrated in the center and that an atom is mostly empty space

Back

electron

Front

small, negatively charged particle surrounding an atom in orbitals

Back

aufbau principle

Front

e- are placed in orbitals, subshells, and shells in order of increasing energy

Back

alkali metals

Front

G1 elements

Back

isotope

Front

element with a different number of neutrons

Back

molecular formula

Front

actual formula for a substance

Back

? L/mol

Front

22.4 L

Back

anion

Front

particle with more electrons than protons; negatively charged

Back

ideal gas law

Front

pv=nrt

Back

noble gases

Front

G18

Back

shielding electrons

Front

electrons between a valence electron and the nucleus that decreases the attraction between the nucleus and the valence electron

Back

transition metals

Front

G3 through G12

Back

thomsons experiment

Front

cathode ray tube; deflection of charges that concluded atoms are composed of positive and negative particles

Back

quantized

Front

e- can only exist at specific energy levels separated by specific intervals

Back

when electron drops to a lower energy level

Front

then electromagnetic radiation is released (energy)

Back

atomic number

Front

number of electrons/protons in the atom

Back

groups

Front

vertical rows

Back

periods

Front

horizontal rows

Back

cation

Front

particle with less electrons than protons; positively charged

Back

stable atoms have

Front

... completed shells

Back

dalton

Front

modern atomic theory; elements combined in different ratios; are never created nor destroyed in chemical reactions

Back

photoelectron spectra (pes)

Front

charted amounts of ionizations energies for electrons ejected from a nucleus; can be used to identify elements

Back

kinetic energy

Front

energy of motion

Back

quantum energy equation

Front

e=hv

Back

mass spectrometry

Front

mass of various isotopic elements to create a mass spectrum graph

Back

alkaline earth metals

Front

G2 elements

Back

frequency and wavelength are

Front

inversely proportional; c=hv

Back

unit for binding energy

Front

kj/mol or Mj/mol

Back

lanthanides and actinides

Front

rare earth elements; inner transition metals

Back

mass number

Front

sum of protons and neutrons

Back

molar mass

Front

average mass of a single atom measured in amus; also the average mass for one mole of the atom in grams

Back

electromagnetic radiation

Front

the form in which atoms absorb energy

Back

hunds rule

Front

when an electron is added to a subshell it will always occupy an empty orbital if one is available

Back

percent composition

Front

percent by mass of each element that makes up a compound; mass part/mass whole

Back

mendeleev & meyer

Front

independent proposals of early periodic tables

Back

proton

Front

positively charged particle in the nucleus; # of which determines the properties of an element

Back

bohr model

Front

each energy level is represented by a row in the periodic table

Back

plum pudding model

Front

Back

neutron

Front

neutral particles in the nucleus of an atom

Back

millikans experiment

Front

calculated charge on an electron by examining the behavior of charged oil drops in an electric field

Back

mole

Front

unit used to represent large numbers of small particles such as atoms, molecules, electrons, or ions

Back

avogadros number

Front

6.022 E23

Back

halogens

Front

G17

Back

pauli exclusion principle

Front

two electrons who share an orbital cannot have the same spin (must be clockwise and counterclockwise); magnetic moment

Back

ionization energy

Front

amount of energy necessary to remove electrons from an atom (electromagnetic energy exceeds binding energy)

Back

empirical formula

Front

simplest ratio of the molecules making up a compound

Back

coulombs law

Front

the amount of energy that an electron has depends on its distance from the nucleus of an atom; e=k(q1*q20)/r

Back

heisenberg uncertainty principle

Front

it is impossible to know both the position and momentum of an electron at a particular instant; means electron orbitals do NOT represent specific orbits

Back

quantum theory

Front

electromagnetic energy is quantized; for a given frequency of light or radiation, all possible energies are multiples of a certain unit (a quantum)

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

periodic trend: cations

Front

periodic trend: ... are smaller than atoms; e- is removed and a shell is lost and electron-electron repulsions are reduced

Back

periodic trend: left to right

Front

periodic trend: atomic radius decreases; protons are added to the nucleus so valence electrons are more strongly attracted ionization energy increases (protons are added to the nucleus)

Back

intermolecular forces (IMFs)

Front

forces that exist between molecules in a covalently bonded substance; not bonds

Back

the common network solids

Front

SiO2,

Back

metallic bonding

Front

bond between two metals; sea of electrons that make metals such good conductors; delocalized structure allows for malleability and ductility

Back

linear geometry

Front

sp hybridization 0 lone pairs ex. BeCl2 & CO2

Back

trigonal bipyramidal geometry

Front

5 e- pairs, sp4 hybridization 0 lone pairs: trigonal bipyramidal (5 bonds) [PCl5, PF5] 1 lone pair: seesaw (4 bonds) [SF4, IF4+] 2 lone pairs: t-shaped (3 bonds) [ClF3, ICl3] 3 lone pairs: linear (2 bonds) [XeF2, I3-]

Back

2 factors that affect melting points in ionic substances

Front

primary factor: charge on the ions (greater charges, greater Coulombic attraction) secondary factor: smaller atoms (greater Coulombic attraction)

Back

formal charge

Front

used to find which structure is most likely to occur; valence - assigned

Back

substitutional alloy

Front

metal atoms with similar radii combine; ex. brass

Back

periodic trend: down a group

Front

periodic trend: atomic radius increases; shells of electrons are added which shield the more distant shells and valence e- get farther away ionization energy decreases (shells of e- added, each inner shell shields more and reduces the pull on valence e- so they are easier to remove)

Back

london dispersion forces

Front

IMFs that occur between all molecules; occur because of the random motions of electrons on atoms within molecules to create instantaneous polarities; molecules with more e- will have greater _________________ forces

Back

n-doping

Front

add a substance with one MORE valence e- which leaves a free e- to travel freely i.e. si + p

Back

octahedral geometry

Front

6 e- pairs, sp5 hybridization 0 lone pairs: octahedral (6 bonds) [SF6] 1 lone pair: square pyramidal (5 bonds) [BrF5, IF5] 2 lone pairs: square planar (4 bonds) [XeF4]

Back

resonance structures

Front

structures that occur when it is possible to draw two or more valid lewis electron dot diagrams that have the same number of electron pairs for a molecule or ion

Back

ionic solid

Front

compound held together by electrostatic attractions that are in a lattice structure; weak conductors (e- are localized around a single atom); no IMFs

Back

EN trends

Front

left to right; EN increases down a group; EN decreases

Back

polarity

Front

exists when a molecule has a clustering of negative charge on one side due to unequal sharing of electrons (e- are pulled to the more electronegative side); creates dipoles in molecules

Back

atomic radius

Front

approximate distance from the nucleus of an atom to its valence electrons

Back

valence shell electron-pair repulsion model (VSEPR)

Front

model used to predict molecular geometry based on the principle that electrons repel each other and therefore are as far apart as possible in a structure

Back

assigned e-

Front

lone pairs of e- count as two and bonds count as one

Back

properties of ionic solids

Front

are solid at room temperature; high melting and boiling points

Back

vaporization

Front

the process by which molecules with enough KE inside a liquid break the surface of the liquid and transition into the gaseous phase; no outside energy is needed i.e. no heating

Back

salts have __________ bonding

Front

ionic bonding

Back

melting & boiling points of a covalent substance is almost always _____________ than that of ionic substances

Front

lower

Back

dipole-dipole forces

Front

the positive end of one polar molecule is attracted to the negative end of another molecule; relatively weak attraction force

Back

double bonds

Front

one sigma bond, one pi bond; two e- pairs

Back

hydrogen bonding

Front

strong IMF between two moelcules; F, O, N; have higher melting and boiling points than molecules with other IMFs

Back

single bonds

Front

one sigma bond, one e- pair; longest bond, least energy

Back

tetrahedral geometry

Front

4 e- pairs, sp3 hybridization angles 109.5 0 lone pairs: tetrahedral (four bonds) [CH4, NH4+, ClO4-, SO4 2-, PO4 3-] 1 lone pair: trigonal pyramidal (3 bonds) [NH3, PCl3, SO3 2-] 2 lone pairs: bent (2 bonds) [H2O, OF2, NH2-]

Back

p-doping

Front

create a hole (positively charged) that draws electrons through the substance (add a substance with one LESS valence e-) i.e. si + al

Back

trigonal planar geometry

Front

sp2 hybridization bond angles 120 0 lone pairs: trigonal planar (three bonds) 1 lone pair: bent (two bonds)

Back

electronegativity

Front

how strongly the nucleus of an atom attracts the electrons of other atoms in a bond

Back

bonding

Front

transfer or sharing of electrons

Back

hybrid orbitals

Front

orbitals that have the properties to explain the geometry of bonds between atoms

Back

network covalent bonds

Front

lattice of covalent bonds; network solid (acts similar to one molecule); very hard, high melting/boiling points; poor conductors

Back

triple bonds

Front

one sigma bond, two pi bonds; 3 e- pairs; shortest bond, most energy

Back

factors that affect electronegativity

Front

smaller atom; greater EN closer the element is to having a full energy level; higher EN

Back

vapor pressure is primarily dependent on

Front

dependent on IMFs

Back

doping

Front

the addition of an impurity to an existing lattice

Back

substances with only london dispersion forces usually...

Front

... are gases at room temp, and boil/melt at extremely low temps

Back

covalent bonds

Front

bond in which two atoms share electrons; each atom counts the e- as a part of its valence shell

Back

vapor pressure

Front

the pressure exerted by a vapor over a liquid

Back

ionization energy magnitudes

Front

subsequent energies are larger because the e-e repulsion decreases and the remaining valence e- are closer to the nucleus; once a shell is empty the energy required to remove an e- from a full shell is significantly greater than previous energies

Back

more polar molecule....

Front

.... larger dipole moment

Back

ionic bond

Front

bond between metal and nonmetal; electrons are NOT shared: the cation gives an e- up to the anion

Back

metalloids

Front

Back

periodic trend: anions

Front

periodic trend: ... are larger than atoms; e- is added, electron-electron repulsions increase and valence electrons move farther apart

Back

dipole moment

Front

the measurement of the polarity of a molecule; the unit of measurement is a debye (D)

Back

interstitial alloy

Front

metal atoms with vastly different radii combine; ex. steel

Back

Section 3

(50 cards)

limiting reactant

Front

the substance that controls the quantity of product that can form in a chemical reaction; moles of each reactant divided by moles used in reaction

Back

acid-base reaction

Front

a reaction when an acid reacts with a base to form water and a salt

Back

hydroxide

Front

OH-

Back

acetate

Front

C2H3O2-

Back

precipitation reaction

Front

a reaction in which an insoluble substance (salt) forms and separates from the solution

Back

molarity

Front

the concentration of a solution in terms of moles of solution/volume (L)

Back

charles law

Front

if pressure is constant: as temp increases, volume increases

Back

hydrocarbon

Front

an organic compound composed only of carbon and hydrogen

Back

oxidation number: oxygen

Front

-2

Back

paper chromatography

Front

the separation of a mixture by passing it through a medium in which the components of the solution move at different rates

Back

cyanide

Front

CN-

Back

distillation

Front

the process that separates the substances in a solution based on their boiling points

Back

hydrocarbon combustion

Front

hydrocarbon + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water a substance is ignited (usually a hydrocarbon) and it reacts with oxygen in the atmosphere; products are always CO2 and H2O

Back

maxwell-boltzmann diagrams

Front

shows the range of velocities for molecules of a gas

Back

partial pressure

Front

the pressure of each gas in a mixture; is directly proportional to the number of moles of gas in the mixture Pa = (Ptotal) (moles of A/total moles)

Back

exothermic

Front

products have stronger bonds than the reactants; heat is released, - ΔH

Back

factors that affect rate of effusion

Front

speed of gas molecules (so ________ increases with higher temperature and lower mass)

Back

dissociation

Front

when ionic substances break up into ions into solution

Back

kinetic molecular theory

Front

the theory that all matter is composed of particles (atoms and molecules) moving constantly in random directions

Back

oxidation number: H

Front

+1

Back

net ionic equation

Front

an equation for a reaction in solution showing only those particles that are directly involved in the chemical change

Back

oxidation number: alkaline earth metals

Front

+2

Back

effusion

Front

the rate at which a gas will escape from a container through microscopic holes in the surface of the container

Back

boyles law

Front

if temperature is constant: as pressure increases, volume decreases as volume increases, pressure decreases

Back

nitrate

Front

NO3-

Back

endothermic

Front

reactants have stronger bonds than the products; heat is absorbed, + ΔH

Back

column chromatography

Front

a column is packed with stationary substance, then the solution to be separated (analyte) is injected into the column where it adheres to the stationary phase, then the eluent solution is injected into the column. as the eluent solution passes through the stationary phase the analyte molecules will be attracted to it with varying degrees of strength based on polarity

Back

when bonds are formed

Front

...energy is released

Back

retention factor

Front

stronger the attraction between the solute and the solvent front is, the larger the Rf value will be

Back

solvent

Front

a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances

Back

decomposition reaction

Front

a reaction where a single compound os split into two or more elements or simple compounds, usually in the presence of heat; opposite of a synthesis

Back

activation energy

Front

the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction

Back

when bonds are broken

Front

...energy is absorbed

Back

oxidation number: halogens

Front

-1

Back

synthesis reaction

Front

when elements or simple compounds are combined to form a single, more complex compound

Back

solute

Front

substance being dissolved

Back

salt

Front

an ionic compound made from the neutralization of an acid with a base

Back

electrolytes

Front

free ions in solution that conduct electricity

Back

gravimetric analysis

Front

a type of quantitative analysis in which the amount of a species in a material is determined by converting the species to a precipitate that can be isolated completely and weighed

Back

law of conservation of mass

Front

matter can be neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction

Back

daltons law

Front

the total pressure of a mixture of gases is just the sum of all the partial pressures of the individual gases in the mixture

Back

if volume is constant:

Front

as pressure increases, temperature increases

Back

oxidation number: alkali metals

Front

+1

Back

combined gas law

Front

(P1V1)/T1=(P2V2)/T2

Back

oxidation-reduction reaction

Front

a reaction that results in the change of the oxidation states of some participating species

Back

mole fraction

Front

moles of substance/total moles in solution

Back

ideal gas

Front

(gas) high temperature, low pressure, no attractive forces, in constant motion without losing energy

Back

KE=0.5mv^2

Front

average kinetic energy of a single gas molecule (ideal gas)

Back

permanganate

Front

MnO4-

Back

catalyst

Front

substance that speeds up a reaction by reducing the activation energy required by the reaction; provides an alternate reaction pathway; no effect on equilibrium conditions

Back

Section 4

(50 cards)

effective collisions

Front

collisions in which the conditions of the collision theory are met (and therefore the reaction occurs)

Back

STP

Front

standard temp. and pressure

Back

phosphate

Front

PO4 3-

Back

solid to gas

Front

sublimation

Back

electrolyctic cell

Front

an outside source id used to force an unfavored redox rxn to take place

Back

gas to liquid

Front

condensation

Back

titration

Front

the slow addition of a solution at a known concentration to another solution in order to determine the concentration of the unknown solution; color change is often used as an end point

Back

galvanic (voltaic) cell

Front

a favored redox reaction in a cell is used to generate an electric current

Back

collision theory

Front

theory that collisions occur because reactants are constantly moving around and colliding with one another

Back

Gibbs free-energy

Front

ΔG; a measure of whether or not a process will proceed without the input of outside energy ∆G=∆H-T∆S (T in degrees Kelvin) when ΔG=0, the reaction is at equilibrium

Back

standard state conditions

Front

all gases are 1 atm all liquids are pure all solids are pure all solutions are 1 molar the energy of formation of an element in its normal state is defined as zero the temperature used is 25C or 273K

Back

unfavored redox reaction

Front

-E

Back

liquid to gas

Front

vaporization

Back

work

Front

force exerted on an object that causes it to move

Back

hess's law

Front

if a reaction can be described by a series of steps, then ΔH for the overall reaction is the sum of the ΔH values for all the steps

Back

favored redox reaction

Front

+E

Back

half-life

Front

the amount of time it takes for half of a sample to disappear; t1/2=0.693/k

Back

second order rate law

Front

[a] sub. (t) = concentration of reactant A at time (t) [a] sub. (0) = initial conc. of A k = rate constant t = time elapsed

Back

gas to solid

Front

deposition

Back

rate-determining step

Front

the slowest step in a reaction mechanism that determines the overall rate of the reaction

Back

rate law

Front

an expression relating the rate of a reaction to the concentration of the reactants

Back

sulfate

Front

SO4 2-

Back

half-reactions

Front

the two parts of an oxidation-reduction reaction, one representing oxidation, the other reduction

Back

elementary steps

Front

a series of simple reactions that represent the progress of the overall reaction at the molecular level

Back

cathode

Front

where reduction takes place

Back

enthalpy of solution

Front

the amount of energy released or absorbed as heat when a specific amount of solute dissolves in a solvent

Back

solid to liquid

Front

melting

Back

ineffective collisions

Front

collisions in which the conditions of the collision theory are not met (and therefore reaction does not occur)

Back

bond energy

Front

the energy required to break a bond; endothermic process (add energy)

Back

beer's law

Front

A=abc A=absorbance a=molar absorptivity b=path length; the distance the light is traveling through the solution c=concentration of the solution

Back

zero order rate laws

Front

rate does not depend on the concentration of the reactants at all therefore rate is always the same at a given temperature; rate=k

Back

heat of vaporization

Front

the energy that must be put into a liquid to turn it into a gas

Back

dichromate

Front

Cr2O7 2-

Back

first law of thermodynamics

Front

the energy of the universe is constant

Back

purpose of a salt bridge

Front

maintains electrical neutrality in the cell

Back

entropy

Front

ΔS; a measure of the randomness or disorder of the system

Back

rules of hess's law

Front

1. if you flip the equation, flip the sign on ΔH 2. if you multiply or divide an equation by a #, multiply ΔH by the same # 3. if several equations in summation create a new equation, you can also add the ΔH values of those component equations to get the ΔH value for the new equation

Back

first order rate law

Front

y= ln[a] subscript (t) m= -k x= time b= ln[a] subscript (0)

Back

spectrophotometer

Front

an instrument that measures the proportions of light of different wavelengths absorbed and transmitted by a pigment solution

Back

ammonium

Front

NH4+

Back

current

Front

unit: amperes (amps); the flow of electrons from one place to another

Back

enthalpy

Front

ΔH; heat of a system at constant pressure

Back

elecroplating

Front

a process that uses electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin metal coating on an electrode

Back

heat of fusion

Front

the energy that must be absorbed by a solid to melt it

Back

second law of thermodynamics

Front

if a process is favored in one direction, then it cannot be favored in the reverse reaction; and an increase in entropy promotes favored reactions

Back

liquid to solid

Front

freezing

Back

ΔH°f (heat of formation)

Front

the change in energy that takes place when one mole of a compound is formed from its pure components under STP

Back

anode

Front

where oxidation takes place

Back

state functions

Front

functions that depend only on the change between the initial and final states of a system and therefore independent of the reaction pathway (catalyst has no effect) ΔS, ΔH, ΔG

Back

carbonate

Front

CO3 2-

Back

Section 5

(37 cards)

pH

Front

-log [H+]

Back

pKb

Front

-log [Kb]

Back

polyprotic acids

Front

acids that can donate more than one H+

Back

at high temperature

Front

entropy is dominant; ΔS

Back

Arrhenius acids

Front

a substance that ionizes in water and produces hydrogen ions

Back

heating/cooling curves

Front

curves that display what happens to the temperature of a substance as heat is added

Back

henderson hasselbach

Front

pH = pKa + log([A-]/[HA])

Back

weak acid

Front

most of the acid molecules remain in solution and very few dissociate

Back

Q = K

Front

the reaction is at equilibrium; voltage in a voltaic cell reaches zero

Back

amphoteric

Front

a substance that can act as both an acid and a base; ex. H2O

Back

Arrhenius bases

Front

a substance that ionizes in water and produces hydroxide ions

Back

Brønsted-Lowry acids

Front

a substance that is capable of donating a proton

Back

pOH

Front

-log [OH-]

Back

large k eq value

Front

products are favored at equilibrium

Back

pKa

Front

-log [Ka]

Back

small k eq value

Front

reactants are favored at equilibrium

Back

phase diagram (water)

Front

Back

hydration energy

Front

the energy required to break hydrogen bonds

Back

le chateliers principle

Front

states that if a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that relieves that stress

Back

buffers

Front

weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH

Back

percent dissociation

Front

the ratio of the amount of a substance that is dissociated at equilibrium to the initial concentration of the substance in a solution, multiplied by 100

Back

calorimetry

Front

the measurement of heat changes during chemical reactions

Back

oxoacids

Front

acids that contain oxygen; the more oxygens, the stronger the acid

Back

a solution is at equilibrium when

Front

the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction

Back

specific heat

Front

the amount of heat required to the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree celsius

Back

strong acids

Front

dissociate completely in water; reaction goes to completion and never reaches equilibrium

Back

common ion effect

Front

a decrease in the solubility of an ionic compound caused by the addition of a common ion

Back

Q < K

Front

precipitate does not form; reaction shifts right

Back

Brønsted-Lowry bases

Front

a substance that is capable of accepting a proton

Back

Kw

Front

1.0x10^-14

Back

reaction quotient

Front

Q

Back

Q > K

Front

precipitate forms; reaction shifts left

Back

nonspontaneous

Front

thermodynamically unfavored; +ΔG

Back

spontaneous

Front

thermodynamically favored; -ΔG

Back

voltage vs favorability

Front

a redox reaction is favored if voltage is (+)

Back

law of mass action

Front

the rate of a chemical reaction is proportional to the product of the concentrations of the reactants

Back

at low temperature

Front

enthalpy is dominant; ΔH

Back