AP Chemistry Big Idea #5

AP Chemistry Big Idea #5

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Section 1

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thermodynamically favored

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Cards (50)

Section 1

(50 cards)

thermodynamically favored

Front

ΔG is negative if both ΔH is negative and ΔS is positive

Back

Bond Energy

Front

The measure of bond strength in a chemical bond. It is the heat required to break one mole of molecules into their individual atoms.

Back

Gibbs Free Energy

Front

ΔG = -RTlnK <-- At Equilibrium

Back

If ΔG is zero...

Front

K = 1 E=0 Reaction at equilibrium

Back

Exothermic

Front

A process in which the system loses heat.

Back

If 'q' is negative...

Front

The system loses heat.

Back

If ΔG is positive...

Front

Rxn is not thermodynamically favorable (nonspontaneous) K<1 Reactants are favored E is negative

Back

Bond length

Front

The equilibrium distance between the nuclei of two groups or atoms that are bonded to each other.

Back

If ΔH is positive and ΔS is positive...

Front

Thermodynamically favorable at high temperatures.

Back

work

Front

Back

Enthalpy

Front

Heat flow in processes occurring at constant pressure when no forms of work are performed other than P-V work.

Back

Pressure-Volume work

Front

w = -PΔV

Back

Is ΔH is negative and ΔS is negative...

Front

Thermodynamically favorable at low temperatures

Back

Kinetic Energy

Front

The energy of motion.

Back

enthalpy change (ΔH)

Front

the amount of energy released (for negative values) or absorbed (for positive values) by a chemical reaction at constant pressure

Back

temperature

Front

a measure of the average kinetic energy of atoms and molecules.

Back

Gibbs free energy

Front

Back

Renewable energy

Front

Energy sources that are essentially inexhaustible.

Back

Potential energy

Front

The energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position relative to others.

Back

Physical change

Front

Processes that involve only changes in weak intermolecular interactions, such as phase changes

Back

Entropy

Front

randomness or disorder; increases when 1. solid to liquid, or liquid to gas 2. number of particles increases 3. increase in volume

Back

If ΔE is positive...

Front

It shows the net gain of energy by the system.

Back

First Law of Thermodynamics

Front

Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but only transformed from one form to another

Back

Calorimetry

Front

Measurement of heat flow.

Back

making bonds

Front

releases energy

Back

Fuel value

Front

The energy released when one gram of a material is combusted.

Back

Hess's law

Front

the overall enthalpy change in a reaction is equal to the sum of enthalpy changes for the individual steps in the process

Back

bond length

Front

The distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy; the average distance between two bonded atoms.

Back

Endothermic

Front

A process of which the system absorbs heat.

Back

If ΔH is positive and ΔS is negative...

Front

Not Thermodynamically Favorable ever!

Back

State function

Front

A property of a system that is determined by specifying the system's condition or state (in terms of temperature, pressure, etc.).

Back

not thermodynamically favored

Front

ΔG is positive if both ΔH is positive and ΔS is negative

Back

calorimetry

Front

an experimental technique that is used to determine the heat exchanged / transferred in a chemical system

Back

if 'w' is negative...

Front

Work is done by the system.

Back

breaking bonds

Front

requires energy

Back

If ΔG is negative...

Front

Rxn is thermodynamically favorable (spontaneous) K>1 Products are favored E is positive

Back

Hess's Law

Front

If a reaction is carried out in a series of steps, ΔH for the overall reaction will equal the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual steps.

Back

heating / cooling curve

Front

Back

Calorimeter

Front

A device used to measure heat flow.

Back

Second Law of Thermodynamics

Front

Every energy transformation increases the entropy of the universe

Back

heat transfer

Front

transfer of kinetic energy from a warmer body to a cooler body

Back

If 'w' is positive...

Front

Work is done on the system.

Back

kinetic control

Front

Processes that are thermodynamically favored, but do not proceed at a measurable rate

Back

If ΔE is negative...

Front

It means the net loss of energy by the system

Back

If 'q' is positive...

Front

The system gains heat.

Back

Heat Capacity (C)

Front

The temperature change experienced by an object when it absorbs a certain amount of heat.

Back

First law of Thermodynamics

Front

Energy is conserved.

Back

Chemical change

Front

Processes that involve the breaking and/or formation of chemical bonds

Back

Internal energy

Front

The sum of all the kinetic and potential energies of all its components.

Back

If ΔH is negative and ΔS is positive...

Front

Thermodynamically Favorable at all temperatures

Back