Section 1

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results

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Last updated

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Date created

Mar 14, 2020

Cards (173)

Section 1

(50 cards)

results

Front

section of a scientific paper in which the author narrates the experimental findings and presents relevant figures, pictures, diagrams, graphs, and tables, without any further interpretation (Page 39).

Back

serendipity

Front

fortunate accident or a lucky surprise (Page 39).

Back

science

Front

knowledge that covers general truths or the operation of general laws, especially when acquired and tested by the scientific method (Page 39).

Back

life science

Front

field of science, such as biology, that studies living things (Page 38).

Back

hypothesis based science

Front

form of science that begins with a specific question and potential testable answers (Page 38).

Back

plagiarism

Front

using other people's work or ideas without proper citation, creating the false impression that those are the author's original ideas (Page 39).

Back

eukaryote

Front

organism with cells that have nuclei and membrane-bound organelles (Page 38).

Back

falsifiable

Front

able to be disproven by experimental results (Page 38).

Back

hypothesis

Front

suggested explanation for an observation, which can be tested (Page 38).

Back

applied science

Front

form of science that aims to solve real-world problems (Page 38).

Back

introduction

Front

opening section of a scientific paper, which provides background information about what was known in the field prior to the research reported in the paper (Page 38).

Back

biochemestry

Front

study of the chemistry of biological organisms (Page 38).

Back

cell

Front

smallest fundamental unit of structure and function in living things (Page 38).

Back

ecosystem

Front

all the living things in a particular area together with the abiotic, nonliving parts of that environment (Page 38).

Back

organ

Front

collection of related tissues grouped together performing a common function (Page 39).

Back

macromolecule

Front

large molecule, typically formed by the joining of smaller molecules (Page 38).

Back

biosphere

Front

collection of all the ecosystems on Earth (Page 38).

Back

peer-reviewed manuscript

Front

scientific paper that is reviewed by a scientist's colleagues who are experts in the field of study (Page 39).

Back

paleontology

Front

study of life's history by means of fossils (Page 39).

Back

descriptive science

Front

(also, discovery science) form of science that aims to observe, explore, and investigate (Page 38).

Back

natural science

Front

field of science that is related to the physical world and its phenomena and processes (Page 39).

Back

materials and methods

Front

section of a scientific paper that includes a complete description of the substances, methods, and techniques used by the researchers to gather data (Page 38).

Back

review article

Front

paper that summarizes and comments on findings that were published as primary literature (Page 39).

Back

organelle

Front

small structures that exist within cells and carry out cellular functions (Page 39).

Back

molecule

Front

chemical structure consisting of at least two atoms held together by one or more chemical bonds (Page 39).

Back

community

Front

set of populations inhabiting a particular area (Page 38).

Back

microbiology

Front

study of the structure and function of microorganisms (Page 39).

Back

inductive reasoning

Front

form of logical thinking that uses related observations to arrive at a general conclusion (Page 38).

Back

atom

Front

smallest and most fundamental unit of matter (Page 38).

Back

physical science

Front

field of science, such as geology, astronomy, physics, and chemistry, that studies nonliving matter (Page 39).

Back

neurobiology

Front

study of the biology of the nervous system (Page 39).

Back

deductive reasoning

Front

form of logical thinking that uses a general inclusive statement to forecast specific results (Page 38).

Back

botany

Front

study of plants (Page 38).

Back

evolution

Front

process of gradual change during which new species arise from older species and some species become extinct (Page 38).

Back

population

Front

all of the individuals of a species living within a specific area (Page 39).

Back

scientific method

Front

method of research with defined steps that include observation, formulation of a hypothesis, testing, and confirming or falsifying the hypothesis (Page 39).

Back

molecular biology

Front

study of biological processes and their regulation at the molecular level, including interactions among molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins (Page 39).

Back

Basic science

Front

science that seeks to expand knowledge and understanding regardless of the short term application of that knowledge (Page 38).

Back

abstract

Front

opening section of a scientific paper that summarizes the research and conclusions (Page 38).

Back

conclusion

Front

section of a scientific paper that summarizes the importance of the experimental findings (Page 38).

Back

phylogenetic tree

Front

diagram showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species based on similarities and differences in genetic or physical traits or both; in essence, a hypothesis concerning evolutionary connections (Page 39).

Back

theory

Front

tested and confirmed explanation for observations or phenomena (Page 39).

Back

homeostasis

Front

ability of an organism to maintain constant internal conditions (Page 38).

Back

control

Front

part of an experiment that does not change during the experiment (Page 38).

Back

biology

Front

the study of living organisms and their interactions with one another and their environments (Page 38).

Back

discussion

Front

section of a scientific paper in which the author interprets experimental results, describes how variables may be related, and attempts to explain the phenomenon in question (Page 38).

Back

tissue

Front

group of similar cells carrying out related functions (Page 39).

Back

organ system

Front

level of organization that consists of functionally related interacting organs (Page 39).

Back

prokaryote

Front

single-celled organism that lacks organelles and does not have nuclei surrounded by a nuclear membrane (Page 39).

Back

organism

Front

individual living entity (Page 39).

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

what is the symbol for sodium

Front

Na

Back

a proton is charged

Front

positive (+1)

Back

what is the Latin name for sodium

Front

natrium

Back

how many man-made occurring elements are there?

Front

26

Back

what is the symbol for nitrogen

Front

N

Back

What percentage of oxygen is in the Earth's crust?

Front

46%

Back

What percentage of nitrogen is in the atmosphere?

Front

78%

Back

usually, an atom have protons, neutrons, and electrons, what is different about hydrogen?

Front

hydrogen has only a proton and an electron (there are no neutrons in hydrogen)

Back

What four elements are common to all living things

Front

oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen

Back

balanced chemical equation

Front

the number of atoms of each element is the same on each side of the equation

Back

the law of mass action

Front

chemical law stating that the rate of a reaction is proportional to the concentration of the reacting substances

Back

What percentage of hydrogen is in the Earth's crust?

Front

.1%

Back

a neutron is charged

Front

neutral (0)

Back

hydrogen bonds occur when

Front

the same kind of molecules are attracted

Back

The innermost shell of an atom can hold

Front

two electrons

Back

variable

Front

part of an experiment that the experimenter can vary or change (Page 39).

Back

chemical bond

Front

interaction between two or more of the same or different atoms that results in the formation of molecules

Back

What does the nucleus contain

Front

protons and neutrons

Back

products

Front

the substances found at the end of the reaction

Back

helium atom

Front

two electrons, two protons, and two nutrons

Back

What are the two regions of the atom?

Front

the nucleus and the outermost region

Back

What percentage of carbon is in the Earth's crust?

Front

trace

Back

what percentage of a human being is oxygen?

Front

65%

Back

metacognition

Front

1. Assess the task—Get a handle on what is involved in completing a task (the steps or components required for success) and any constraints (time, resources). 2. Evaluate your strengths and weaknesses—Evaluate your own skills and knowledge in relation to a task. 3. Plan an approach—Take into account your assessment of the task and your evaluation of your own strengths and weaknesses in order to devise an appropriate plan. 4. Apply strategies and monitor your performance—Continually monitor your progress as you are working on a task, comparing where you are to the goal you want to achieve. 5. Reflect and adjust if needed—Look back on what worked and what didn't work so that you can adjust your approach next time and, if needed, start the cycle again.

Back

what is the symbol for carbon

Front

C

Back

how many naturally occurring elements are there?

Front

92

Back

How are most chemicals symbolized ?

Front

by a single capital letter, or when a capital letter is already being used, a combination of two letters

Back

What percentage of carbon is in a human body

Front

19%

Back

what is the symbol for hydrogen

Front

H

Back

reactants

Front

The substances used in the beginning of a chemical reaction

Back

an electron is charged

Front

negative (-1), very small mass

Back

What percentage of hydrogen is in the Earth's atmosphere?

Front

trace

Back

What percentage of oxygen is in the atmosphere?

Front

21%

Back

What percent of the Earth's crust is nitrogen?

Front

trace

Back

compound

Front

they contain atoms of more than one type of element

Back

What percentage of carbon is in the atmosphere?

Front

trace

Back

covalent bonds occur when

Front

atoms share electrons

Back

What percentage of nitrogen is in a human body?

Front

3%

Back

atom

Front

the smallest unit of matter that retains all of the chemical properties of an element

Back

irreversible

Front

can proceed in one direction until the reactants are all used up

Back

elements

Front

are unique forms of matter with specific chemical and physical properties that cannot be broken down into smaller substances by ordinary chemical reactions.

Back

What function do protons and neutrons do

Front

they hold electrons in place

Back

sublimation

Front

a change directly from the solid to the gaseous state without becoming liquid

Back

What percentage of hydrogen is in a human body?

Front

10%

Back

equilibrium

Front

a certain relative balance between reactants and products occurs

Back

chemical reactions

Front

occur when two or more atoms bond together to form molecules or when bonded atoms are broken apart.

Back

zoology

Front

study of animals (Page 39).

Back

what is the symbol for oxygen

Front

O

Back

What does the outermost region contain

Front

electrons

Back

matter

Front

is any substance that occupies space and has mass

Back

Section 3

(50 cards)

atomic number

Front

total number of protons in an atom

Back

deposition

Front

a change directly from the gaseous to the solid state without becoming liquid

Back

electrolyte

Front

ion necessary for nerve impulse conduction, muscle contractions and water balance

Back

buffer

Front

substance that prevents a change in pH by absorbing or releasing hydrogen or hydroxide ions

Back

hydrophobic

Front

describes uncharged non-polar molecules that do not interact well with polar molecules such as water

Back

law of mass action

Front

chemical law stating that the rate of a reaction is proportional to the concentration of the reacting substances

Back

electron

Front

negatively charged subatomic particle that resides outside of the nucleus in the electron orbital

Back

anion

Front

negative ion that is formed by an atom gaining one or more electrons

Back

neutron

Front

uncharged particle that resides in the nucleus of an atom; has a mass of one amu

Back

calorie

Front

amount of heat required to change the temperature of one gram of water by one degree celsius

Back

evaporate

Front

to change to a gaseous state

Back

acid

Front

molecule that donates hydrogen ions and increases the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution

Back

heat of vaporization of water

Front

high amount of energy required for liquid water to turn into water vapor

Back

mass number

Front

total number of protons and neutrons in an atom

Back

enantiomers

Front

molecules that share overall structure and bonding patterns, but differ in how the atoms are three dimensionally placed such that they are mirror images of each other

Back

adhesion

Front

attraction between water molecules and other molecules

Back

covalent bond

Front

type of strong bond formed between two of the same or different elements; forms when electrons are shared between atoms

Back

aliphatic hydrocarbon

Front

hydrocarbon consisting of a linear chain of carbon atoms

Back

dissociation

Front

release of an ion from a molecule such that the original molecule now consists of an ion and the charged remains of the original, such as when water dissociates into H+ and OH

Back

capillary action

Front

occurs because water molecules are attracted to charges on the inner surfaces of narrow tubular structures such as glass tubes, drawing the water molecules to the sides of the tubes

Back

ionic bond

Front

chemical bond that forms between ions with opposite charges (cations and anions)

Back

hydrocarbon

Front

molecule that consists only of carbon and hydrogen

Back

electron configuration

Front

arrangement of electrons in an atom's electron shell

Back

cohesion

Front

intermolecular forces between water molecules caused by the polar nature of water; responsible for surface tension

Back

functional group

Front

group of atoms that provides or imparts a specific function to a carbon skeleton

Back

hydrophilic

Front

describes ions or polar molecules that interact well with other polar molecules such as water

Back

atomic mass

Front

calculated mean of the mass number for an element's isotopes

Back

base

Front

molecule that donates hydroxide ions or otherwise binds excess hydrogen ions and decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution

Back

cation

Front

positive ion that is formed by an atom losing one or more electrons

Back

inert gas

Front

(also, noble gas) element with filled outer electron shell that is unreactive with other atoms

Back

isotope

Front

different form of an element with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons

Back

element

Front

one of 118 unique substances that cannot be broken down into smaller substances; each element has unique properties and a specified number of protons

Back

atomic number

Front

total number of protons in an atom

Back

electron transfer

Front

movement of electrons from one element to another; important in creation of ionic bonds

Back

electronegativity

Front

ability of some elements to attract electrons (often of hydrogen atoms), acquiring partial negative charges in molecules and creating partial positive charges on the hydrogen atoms

Back

nonpolar covalent bond

Front

type of covalent bond that forms between atoms when electrons are shared equally between them

Back

base

Front

molecule that donates hydroxide ions or otherwise binds excess hydrogen ions and decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution

Back

hydrogen bond

Front

weak bond between slightly positively charged hydrogen atoms to slightly negatively charged atoms in other molecules

Back

irreversible chemical reaction

Front

chemical reaction where reactants proceed uni-directionally to form products

Back

noble gas

Front

inert gas

Back

chemical reactivity

Front

the ability to combine and to chemically bond with each other

Back

chemical reaction

Front

process leading to the rearrangement of atoms in molecules

Back

litmus paper

Front

(also, pH paper) filter paper that has been treated with a natural water-soluble dye that changes its color as the pH of the environment changes so it can be used as a pH indicator

Back

radioisotopes

Front

isotopes that emit neutrons, protons, and electrons to attain a more stable atomic configuration

Back

atomic mass

Front

calculated mean of the mass number for an element's isotopes

Back

ion

Front

atom or chemical group that does not contain equal numbers of protons and electrons

Back

evaporation

Front

separation of individual molecules from the surface of a body of water, leaves of a plant, or the skin of an organism

Back

geometric isomer

Front

isomer with similar bonding patterns differing in the placement of atoms alongside a double covalent bond

Back

isomer

Front

molecules that differ from one another even though they share the same chemical formula

Back

electron orbital

Front

how electrons are spatially distributed surrounding the nucleus; the area where an electron is most likely to be found

Back

Section 4

(23 cards)

octet rule

Front

rule that atoms are most stable when they hold eight electrons in their outermost shells

Back

acid

Front

molecule that donates hydrogen ions and increases the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution

Back

sphere of hydration

Front

when a polar water molecule surrounds charged or polar molecules thus keeping them dissolved and in solution

Back

substituted hydrocarbon

Front

hydrocarbon chain or ring containing an atom of another element in place of one of the backbone carbons

Back

van der Waals interaction

Front

very weak interaction between molecules due to temporary charges attracting atoms that are very close together

Back

aromatic hydrocarbon

Front

hydrocarbon consisting of closed rings of carbon atoms

Back

organic molecule

Front

any molecule containing carbon (except carbon dioxide)

Back

valence shell

Front

outermost shell of an atom

Back

reversible chemical reaction

Front

chemical reaction that functions bi-directionally, where products may turn into reactants if their concentration is great enough

Back

nucleus

Front

core of an atom; contains protons and neutrons

Back

solvent

Front

substance capable of dissolving another substance

Back

specific heat capacity

Front

the amount of heat one gram of a substance must absorb or lose to change its temperature by one degree Celsius

Back

proton

Front

positively charged particle that resides in the nucleus of an atom; has a mass of one amu and a charge of +1

Back

orbital

Front

region surrounding the nucleus; contains electrons

Back

radioisotope

Front

isotope that emits radiation composed of subatomic particles to form more stable elements

Back

product

Front

molecule found on the right side of a chemical equation

Back

pH scale

Front

scale ranging from zero to 14 that is inversely proportional to the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution

Back

structural isomers

Front

molecules that share a chemical formula but differ in the placement of their chemical bonds

Back

reactant

Front

molecule found on the left side of a chemical equation

Back

polar covalent bond

Front

type of covalent bond that forms as a result of unequal sharing of electrons, resulting in the creation of slightly positive and slightly negative charged regions of the molecule

Back

zoology

Front

Back

periodic table

Front

organizational chart of elements indicating the atomic number and atomic mass of each element; provides key information about the properties of the elements

Back

surface tension

Front

tension at the surface of a body of liquid that prevents the molecules from separating; created by the attractive cohesive forces between the molecules of the liquid

Back