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Cards (154)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Else must have a...

Front

die function that prints out an error message, in case the else doesn't make sense. Shows errors.

Back

modules

Front

-aka libraries -feature sets you can import into a program

Back

close()

Front

- method flushes unwritten information and closes file object - Not necessary, but important best practice

Back

while

Front

controls flow of the program with truth statements. Statements inside the while loop are executed until the expression evaluates false.

Back

%r

Front

String format character; use for debugging

Back

\t

Front

tab character

Back

**

Front

exponent

Back

%d

Front

Integer format character

Back

exists()

Front

Returns TRUE if file in argument exists, FALSE if not

Back

truncate()

Front

Empties the file

Back

raw_input('prompt:')

Front

Reads a line of input from user and returns as string

Back

pop()

Front

method removes and returns the last object from a list

Back

boolean value

Front

True or False

Back

function

Front

1. Names code like variables name strings/numbers 2. Takes arguments the way scripts take argv 3. Using 1 and 2, allows for mini-commands

Back

""" ............."""

Front

String for multiple lines of text; can be multi-line comment

Back

floating point numbers

Front

-Scientific notation in computers -Allows very large and small numbers using exponents -Made up of: Significand: 5, 1.5, -2.001 Exponent: 2, -2 -Put decimal after integers to make floating point 1 ~ 1.0

Back

%s

Front

String format character; use for user formatting

Back

Treat if statements like...

Front

..paragraphs. Each if, elif, and else grouping is like a set of sentences. Put blank lines before and after.

Back

open()

Front

- function opens a file - Required argument is filename - Default access_mode is read(r) - Does not return actual content; creates/reads fileObject -

Back

append()

Front

Adds input to the end of a list

Back

Ordinal Numbers

Front

Start at 1; First, second, third

Back

Cardinal Numbers

Front

Start at 0

Back

len(input)

Front

Return the number of items from a sequence or characters in a string

Back

Never nest if-statements more than..

Front

..two deep. Try to do one deep (put inside another function).

Back

sorted()

Front

Sorts a list from smallest to highest or a string alphabetically sorted(str, reverse=True) <- Sorts backwards

Back

argv

Front

- argument variable - variable holds arguments passed to script when running it script, first, second, third = argv (line 3) - script = name of python script - first, second, third = 3 variables arguments assigned to

Back

print

Front

print to console

Back

Boolean tests should be..

Front

...simple. If complex, move calculations to variables earlier in function and use a good name for the variable.

Back

input()

Front

Assumes input is valid python expression, returns evaluated result

Back

upper()

Front

converts a string to uppercase

Back

==

Front

equal

Back

write(stuff)

Front

Writes stuff to file

Back

read()

Front

- method reads a string from an open file - fileObject.read([count]) - Count = # of bytes to read, reads as much as possible if not given

Back

lower()

Front

converts a string to lowercase

Back

\

Front

escape; tells python to ignore following character, or puts difficult characters into strings when used with specific escape sequences

Back

A while-loop is...

Front

an infinite loop. "while True" ~ "While true is true, run this:"

Back

x += y

Front

ADD AND x = x + y

Back

readline()

Front

Reads one line of text file

Back

split()

Front

Method splits a string into separate phrases - Default is to split on whitespace split(str, num) str = separator (optional) numb = number of separations (optional)

Back

def

Front

Defines a function def function1(): print "this is function 1"

Back

int()

Front

Convert a string to an integer int(raw_input(> ))

Back

!=

Front

not equal

Back

A for-loop is...

Front

Back

lower()/upper()

Front

convert input to upper or lowercase

Back

Every if statement must have a(n)...

Front

else

Back

5 % 3

Front

Modulo; remainder of the division 5 % 3 = 2 (3 goes into 5 once, remainder 2)

Back

How many characters to a line?

Front

80 characters

Back

round()

Front

function rounds floating point numbers round(1.773) = 2

Back


Front

line character; creates new line in string

Back

close()

Front

- method flushes unwritten information and closes file object - Not necessary, but important best practice

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

except

Front

catches the exception and executes codes

Back

%c

Front

Single character -accepts integer or single char string

Back

%o

Front

unsigned octal

Back

\r

Front

ASCII Carriage Return (CR) - Resets position to beginning of a line of text

Back

\f

Front

ASCII FormFeed (FF) - ASCII Control character. Forces printer to eject current page and continue printing at top of another.

Back

%i

Front

signed integer decimal

Back

%u

Front

unsigned decimal

Back

\\

Front

backslash (\)

Back

%g

Front

Same as "e" if exponent is greater than -4 or less than precision

Back


Front

ASCII LineFeed (LF) - Goes to next line -newline escape

Back

else

Front

optional. Used after elif to catch other cases not provided for.

Back

%f

Front

Floating point decimal format (lowercase)

Back

is

Front

tests for object identity

Back

or

Front

at least one condition must be met

Back

continue

Front

used to interrupt the current cycle, without jumping out of the whole cycle. New cycle will begin.

Back

%E

Front

Floating point exponential format (uppercase)

Back

and

Front

all conditions in a boolean expression must be met

Back

global

Front

access variables defined outside functions

Back

not

Front

negates a boolean value

Back

try

Front

specifies exception handlers

Back

%G

Front

Same as "E" if exponent is greater than -4 or less than precision

Back

%x

Front

Unsigned hexadecimal (lowercase)

Back

del

Front

deletes objects

Back

\a

Front

ASCII Bell -may cause receiving device to emit a bell or warning of some kind

Back

from

Front

for importing a specific variable, class or a function from a module

Back

\'

Front

Single Quote (')

Back

for

Front

iterate over items of a collection in order they appear

Back

yield

Front

is used with generators

Back

return

Front

exits the function and returns a value

Back

%d

Front

signed integer decimal

Back

exec

Front

executes Python code dynamically

Back

elif

Front

stands for else if. if the first test evaluates to False, continues with the next one

Back

%F

Front

Floating point decimal format (UPPERCASE)

Back

%X

Front

Unsigned Hexadecimal (uppercase)

Back

\"

Front

Double-quote (")

Back

pass

Front

does nothing

Back

class

Front

-way of producing objects with similar attributes and methods. -used to create new user defined objects -an object is an instance of a class

Back

as

Front

if we want to give a module a different alias

Back

finally

Front

is always executed in the end. Used to clean up resources.

Back

assert

Front

used for debugging purposes

Back

if

Front

Used to determine, which statements are going to be executed

Back

lambda

Front

creates a new anonymous function

Back

import

Front

import other modules into a python script

Back

break

Front

interrupt the (loop) cycle

Back

raise

Front

create a user defined exception

Back

\v

Front

ASCII Vertical Tab (VT) - 6 vertical lines; 1 inch

Back

%e

Front

Floating point exponential format (lowercase)

Back

def

Front

used to create a new user defined function

Back

\t

Front

ASCII Horizontal Tab (TAB) - 8 horizontal spaces; tab

Back

\b

Front

ASCII Backspace (BS) - Erases last character printed

Back

Section 3

(50 cards)

function argument

Front

passed in for function parameter function(argument)

Back

type()

Front

returns argument value type; str, int, float, etc

Back

function parameter

Front

Variable name for passed in argment def function(parameter):

Back

instance variable

Front

variable only available to one instance of a class

Back

sys

Front

module - contains important objects and functions

Back

os

Front

module - OS routines for NT or POSIX

Back

bit mask

Front

variable used to determine if bits are on or off in an input -sort of works like a multiple choice test key -can be used with | to turn bits on if off -use with ^ and 11111111 to flip all bits def check_bit4(input): mask = 0b1000 desired = input & mask if desired > 0: return "on" return "off"

Back

list slicing

Front

Way to access elements list[start:end:stride] -stride = count by __'s -any term can be omitted, will be set to default - a negative stride progresses through list backwards

Back

zip()

Front

Combines two or 3 lists to return all values in for loops

Back

items()

Front

Returns a list of a dict's tuple pairs (key, value)

Back

filter()

Front

-filters a list for terms that make the function true filter(function, list) filter(lambda x: x%3 ==0, my_list) -for anonymous (throwaway) functions

Back

~88

Front

Bitwise NOT flips all bits in a number for integers, effectively adds 1 and makes negative

Back

// (operator)

Front

Floor Division. Numbers after the decimal in the quotient are removed - 9//2 = 4

Back

member variables

Front

variables only available to members of certain class

Back

sort()

Front

sorts a list from smallest to greatest

Back

=

Front

assigns values from right side operands to left side operand

Back

<>

Front

Value of two operands not equal? -Similar to !=

Back

8 & 5

Front

bitwise AND Turns on bits turned on in BOTH inputs 0b100 & 0b101 = 0b100

Back

universal import

Front

Imports all functions and variables from a module - Can cause conflicts with user defined functions and vars - Better to import only necessary functions from module import *

Back

%r

Front

String -converts any python object using repr()

Back

%s

Front

String -Converts any python object using str()

Back

5 << 1

Front

bitwise left shift -shifts turned on bits to the left 0b001 << 1 = 0b010

Back

12 ^ 42

Front

Bitwise XOR, EXCLUSIVE OR Turns bits on if EITHER but not BOTH bits of inputs are turned on 0b1010 ^ 0b1101 = 0b0111

Back

Syntax to index 2 nested lists?

Front

list[x][y]

Back

abs()

Front

returns absolute value

Back

range()

Front

Returns a list of numbers from start up to (but not including) stop start defaults to 0 and step defaults to 1 range(stop) range(start, stop) range(start, stop, step)

Back

del keyword

Front

deletes key/value pairs from dict

Back

%=

Front

Modulus AND. Takes modulus using two operands and assigns the result to left operand A%=B ~ A = A%B

Back

-=

Front

Subtract AND. Subtracts right operand from left and assigns the result to the left. A-=B ~ A = A - b

Back

max()

Front

returns maximum

Back

values()

Front

Returns an array of dict's values

Back

9 | 4

Front

Bitwise OR Turns on bits if turned on in either input 0b001 | 0b100 = 0b101

Back

"mutable"

Front

can be changed after created

Back

method

Front

function of an object

Back

keys()

Front

Returns an array of dict's keys

Back

*=

Front

Multiply AND. Multiplies left operand by right and assigns product to left operand A=B ~ A = AB

Back

tuple

Front

An immutable sequence of Python objects -Immutable; can't be changed -Similar to list, but can't be modified - Uses (), ends in ; tuple1 = ('word', 1, False);

Back

list comprehension

Front

Python rules for creating lists intelligently s = [x for x in range(1:51) if x%2 == 0] [2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, etc]

Back

+=

Front

Add AND. Adds right operand to the left and assigns the result to the left. A += B ~ A = A + B

Back

min()

Front

returns minimum

Back

dictionary

Front

A list whose objects can be accessed with a key instead of an index. Key can be any string or number. d = {'key1' : 1, 'key2' : 2}

Back

items()

Front

Returns an array of dict key/value pairs

Back

**=

Front

Exponent AND. Performs exponential calculation on operators and assigns value to left operand. A*=B ~ A = A*B

Back

for loop

Front

for variable in list_name: -variable is assigned each list item in turn -indented code below executed on each list item

Back

%

Front

no argument converted, results in "%" in the result

Back

global variable

Front

available everywhere

Back

5 >> 4

Front

bitwise right shift -shifts turned on bits to the right 0b010 >> 1 = 0b001

Back

get()

Front

Returns a value for the given key. If key is not available, returns default of 'none'.

Back

enumerate()

Front

gives an index number to each element in a list

Back

.remove()

Front

removes items from list

Back

Section 4

(4 cards)

seek()

Front

move to a new position in file, reads bytes

Back

module

Front

a file containing Python definitions, statements or scripts, can be user defined or from a built-in library

Back

variable

Front

a name for a place to store strings, numbers etc.

Back

from .... import ....

Front

imports specific attributes from a module

Back