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How do you use id selectors

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Cards (244)

Section 1

(50 cards)

How do you use id selectors

Front

#id {}

Back

How do you format text within HTML

Front

Back

What is the <title> tag

Front

specifies title for the document

Back

What is the <br> tag

Front

specifies a line break. Note this is an empty tag so doesn't need to be closed

Back

What is the <textarea> tag

Front

defines a mutli-line input field e.g. a comment field

Back

What is the <nav> element

Front

used to encapsulate large navigation blocks

Back

What are the rules for XHTML attributes

Front

Back

What is the <pre> tag

Front

used for printing text however unlike a <p> tag it retains formatting i.e. new lines and spaces

Back

What is the <h1> tag

Front

element that defines a heading, goes from h1 to h6 in size

Back

How does inheriting styles work

Front

All HTML elements inherit the properties of elements above them in the hierarchy e.g. <h1> elements will all inherit the <body> styling

Back

What are the padding properties for CSS

Front

It has the exact same properties as margin except with padding instead of margin padding also cannot have a length set to auto

Back

How do you make multiple selections in CSS

Front

separate each selection with a comma

Back

what is the <p> tag

Front

defines a paragraph, all text within the element is printed on 1 line

Back

What is the <datalist> element

Front

specifies a list of pre-defined options for an <input> element different to select because the user types in an option but can also choose directly from the drop down. If they start typing they will get suggestions dropping down

Back

What are the margin properties for CSS

Front

margin-top/right/bottom/left the value can be set to auto, inherit, a specific length e.g. 10px or a % which is a % of the width of the containing element

Back

How do you define a table in HTML

Front

the <table> tag defines the whole element <tr> defines table rows within each row define <td> elements which are the table data

Back

What are inline elements, give an example

Front

- Can begin within a line - doesn't start a new line It's width only extends as far as it is defined by its tag - e.g. <span>

Back

How do you link a stylesheet to an HTML document

Front

Back

How do you use class selectors

Front

.classname, you can put the element type before the classname e.g. p.class which will style all of that element type with that class

Back

What is the <output> element

Front

represents the results of a calculation

Back

How do you specify colours in CSS

Front

- colour names - RGB values using the formula rbg(red, green, blue), values go from 0 to 255 - HEX values using #RRGGBB where values are between 00 and FF

Back

What is the <head> element

Front

Holds the header elements of a section or page

Back

What are block level elements, give an example

Front

- Begin a new line - Extend to the full width of its parent element - e.g. <div>

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How do you specify style directly from HTML

Front

you can use a <style> tag and write CSS inside the element Alternatively you can set it using attributes within the given HTML element e.g. style = "property:value;"

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What are the rules for XHTML elements

Front

Back

What is the <head> tag

Front

contains meta information information about the document

Back

What are the mandatory elements within XHTML

Front

<!DOCTYPE> <html> <head> <title> <body>

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What is the <section element

Front

a generic section of a document, groups content by themes like sections in a document

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Explain CSS syntax

Front

Back

What is the <aside> element

Front

similar to a sidebar, could be used to hold adds

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What is a <div> tag

Front

Used as a container that groups related items together

Back

what is special about the <img> tag

Front

it is an empty tag so doesn't need to be closed

Back

How do you create unordered and ordered lists in HTML

Front

<ul> defines an unordered list <ol> defines an ordered list Each element within the list has the <li> tag

Back

List the main input types

Front

text, password, reset, radio, checkbox, color, email, date

Back

What is XHTML

Front

It is a stricter version of HTML, it is HTML redesigned as XML, a markup language used to store, send and receive data

Back

What is the <footer> element

Front

contains the footer elemtents, e.g. author, copyright, contact info

Back

What is a select element in a form

Front

It is a drop-down list, you specify options within the drop down using the <option> tag

Back

What information is held within the <meta> tag in the <head> element

Front

Back

What is the xmlns attribute in XHTML

Front

it's an attribute of the html tag it is mandatory and specifies the xml namespace - this specifies a simple method for qualifying element and attribute names used in XML and associated them with namespaces identified by URL references

Back

What is the <canvas> element

Front

it is used to draw graphics via javascript

Back

what is the <body> tag

Front

defines the document body, the visible content

Back

What is the <html> tag

Front

the tag that defines the whole document

Back

What is the <article> element

Front

a self-contained item of content, such as a blog post

Back

What are the CSS properties for borders

Front

border-style specifies what kind of border to display border-width specifies the width of the four borders border-color sets the colour of the four borders border radius can be used to add rounded borders to an element border-image

Back

What are the CSS properties that define the background

Front

background-color background-image background-repeat background-position

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What is an HTML attribute and how do you use them

Front

provide additional information about an element specified in the start tag in name/value pairs like name="value"

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What is the <time> element

Front

represents dates and time within javascript

Back

How do you use the CSS border-radius property

Front

Back

How do you use an element selector in CSS

Front

element-name {styling}

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How do you use HTML forms

Front

The whole form is within the <form> element <input> elements sit within the form element the form should have a <input type="submit"> element which is a button which submits the form when the user completes it

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

Explain how you would use a CSS counter

Front

Back

What are the properties for counters

Front

Back

How do you specify the font in CSS

Front

using the font-family property when specifying the value you start with the font you want and then end with a generic family.

Back

How do you define an array in PHP

Front

Back

What is the resize property

Front

defines whether or not an element should be resizable by the user

Back

How do you make images adjust to fit the size of the screen

Front

Back

How do you iterate through an array in PHP

Front

Back

What are the CSS properties for formatting text

Front

Back

What is the clear property and what value does it take

Front

Used to control the behaviour of floating elements

Back

What is the syntax of pseudoclasses in CSS

Front

Back

What is the word-break property

Front

Back

What is a CSS pseudoclass

Front

used to define a special state of an element i.e. when a user mouses over something

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What is the filter property in CSS

Front

adds visual effects such as blur or saturation to an element

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How do you left/right align and object

Front

using the float property or using position absolute

Back

What values can the CSS position property take

Front

Back

What are the values of the text-overflow property

Front

Back

How do you centre text inside an element

Front

text-align:centre

Back

What are the CSS list properties

Front

list-style-type specifies the list item markers list-style-image sets an image as the list item marker

Back

What must PHP statements lie between

Front

<?php and ?> elements

Back

How do you use transform methods in CSS

Front

transform: method()

Back

What is the object-fit property in CSS and what values can it take

Front

Specifies how an image or video should be resized to fit its container

Back

How do you do 3-D transformations

Front

using the rotateX and rotateY properties that rotate the element around the specified axis

Back

What is the <a> HTML element

Front

it specifies a link

Back

What a CSS transition and how do you use them

Front

Allows you to change property values smoothly from 1 value to another. This doesn't carry out the change, you would specify the change using pseudoclasses but this specifies how any changes will happen to said class/element Syntax: transition: property time(s);

Back

What values does the ob pacity property take in CSS

Front

0.0-1.0

Back

How do you create a zebra striped table in CSS

Front

Back

How does PHP run on the web

Front

1. User accesses a website (e.g. www.linkedin.com) 2. Browser sends a message over the internet to the computer named www.linkedin.com 3. Apache, a program running on www.linkedin.com, gets the message and asks the PHP interpreter "what does /index.php look like?" 4. The PHP interpreter reads the file from it's disk drive/file system 5. The PHP interpreter runs the commands in the index.php file possibly exchanging data with a database program such as MySQL 6. The PHP interpreter takes the index.php program outputs and sends it back to Apache as the answer Apache sends the page contents it got from the PHP interpreter back to the computer over the internet. The users browser then displays the page on the screen following the HTML tags in the page.

Back

What are the benefits of PHP

Front

- runs on various platforms - is compatible with almost all servers used today - Supports a wide range of databases - Free - Easy to learn and runs efficiently

Back

What is the border collapse property in CSS

Front

used in tables to combine all overlapping borders

Back

How do you add icons to your webpage

Front

link an online icon style sheet such as google icons, then add classes to HTML elements and this will style them with the icons

Back

How do you define the time it takes for transformations to take place

Front

use the transition property

Back

What are the values of the overflow property

Front

Back

What are the CSS properties for animations

Front

animation-name animation-duration animation-iteration-count (how many times to run the animation) animation-delay (which specifies the delay at the start of the animation)

Back

What are the outline properties in CSS

Front

outline-style outline-color outline-width outline-offset, adds space between an outline and the margin of an element

Back

How do you specify a transition property for multiple properties

Front

Back

What is an outline in CSS

Front

It is a line drawn around the element outside the margin. It doesn't effect the elements dimensions

Back

What are the values for the transition timing function

Front

Back

What is the float property and what values can it take

Front

It can be used to wrap text around images

Back

How do you centre images and block elements

Front

margin:auto

Back

What CSS properties can be used to format links

Front

Back

What is the padding property for tables in CSS

Front

specifies the space between the cell content and its borders

Back

what is the box-shadow property

Front

applies shadow to elements

Back

What are the CSS properties for styling fonts

Front

font-style e.g. normal, italic font-size, 1em is equal to the current fontsize, you can specify absolute sizes in px font-weight specifies how thick/thin characters should be font-variant specifies whether or not text should be displayed all in caps or not

Back

Explain the CSS display property

Front

It can take the values: none block inline inline-block (this makes the elements like inline elements but they can have a width and height)

Back

Explain the CSS box model

Front

Back

What are the basic 2D translation methods in CSS

Front

translate() - moves an element, 2 params, lateral then vertical movement rotate() - takes deg as a param e.g. 20deg scale() - takes 2 values, first the scale to increase width by and then height by skew() - takes deg as a param e.g. 20deg

Back

What are the CSS properties for the size of an element

Front

height, width and maximum width the values can be set to auto, length and %

Back

What is the CSS matrix transform method

Front

Combines all 2D tranform methods in to one matrix(scaleX(),skewY(),skewX(),scaleY(),translateX(),translateY()) Simply insert the values for each method separated by commas in that order

Back

How do you use CSS animations

Front

you define the animation within an @keyframes rule and then apply it to elements using the animation-name: animation; property

Back

What are CSS counters

Front

they are variables maintained by CSS that can be incremented

Back

Section 3

(50 cards)

How do you insert values into an SQL table

Front

Back

What are the benefits of POST over GET

Front

Much less visible because data isn't transferred in the URL The data is not logged Users cannot inavertently share sensitive data in a URL

Back

How do you define a database in PHP

Front

You specify the hostname, username, password and database name in that order

Back

what happens if you set a cookie to "HTTP Only"

Front

Ensures that a cookie is only available via HTTP request Prevents the cookie from being accessed within JavaScript and reduces the potential for cross-set scripting attacks

Back

What is the stripslashes() PHP function

Front

removes backslashes

Back

What does it mean if you set a cookie as "secure"

Front

only send cookies to the server if the request is using HTTPS

Back

What is the HTML required attribute

Front

if you add the attribute to an input element it will be mandatory before submitting a form

Back

What do we need statefulness for on a website

Front

- session management e.g. shopping carts - User identification e.g. login - Analytics e.g. footprints

Back

How do you define the submit button and what do the attributes do

Front

you set the input type as submit the value will define what is shown on the button the name will define how you access the button from the action script

Back

what is the "path" that is stored in a cookie

Front

specific paths on the server to which the cookie can be sent

Back

What is the trim() PHP function

Front

removes whitespace and other predefined characters from both sides of a string

Back

What is the action in an HTML form

Front

it is the location of the script that will process the form.

Back

What makes up a MySQL table

Front

Fields: columns, each describing an aspect of the data Records: each row is a record and has a single entry for each field Data types: as in a programming language each piece of data has a specific type

Back

What is the syntax for the setcookie command in PHP

Front

only the first param is required, others are optional

Back

How do you create a table in MySQL

Front

CREATE TABLE "tablename" (fieldname DATATYPE(x), fieldname DATATYPE(x));

Back

What are the MySQL data types

Front

Back

What should you know about the expiration date that is stored in a cookie

Front

The expiring time is the number of seconds since 01/01/1970 00:00 If not specified the cookie expires when the browser is closed

Back

How do you setup checkboxes in an HTML form

Front

each input is given a name but no value, this is because either the input is set or it isn't So you check it in the script using isset(), the value is irrelevant

Back

How do you delete data from a MySQL table

Front

Back

How do you handle database errors in PHP

Front

using mysqli_connect_errno

Back

How do you query a database using PHP

Front

where $db is the database variable you've already created define the query as a string taking the exact same format as MySQL queries Then submit the query using $db->query($query)

Back

What is meant by the fact that HTTP is a stateless protocol

Front

Once the server has supplied the client with a web page, all connection between them is forgotten

Back

How do you retrieve data from a MySQL table using PHP

Front

Back

What is the size of a cookie

Front

4kb

Back

What are the attributes of GET messages

Front

- Are cached - Are kept in the browser history - Can be bookmarked - Limited by any restriction on URL size

Back

How are POST messages sent

Front

using the HTTP headers

Back

How do you setup a form to show required values and errors if an incorrect value is entered

Front

In the picture is an example. The $error variable is set by a PHP if an incorrect value is send to it

Back

What is the method for HTML forms

Front

either POST or GET, these are methods of sending the data to the script defined by the action attribute

Back

How can you prevent cookies

Front

A client can inform a server that it does not want tracking by setting the Do Not Tracker header in the HTTP request, this is visible to the server as HTTP_DNT

Back

How do delete a cookie

Front

you set its expiring time to a negative value so it "expires"

Back

What is the NOW() function in mySQL

Front

it inserts the current and or time YYYY-MM-DD HH-MM-SS

Back

How do you setup a set of radio buttons

Front

You give each button the same name="" value and a different value="" This way whatever option they pick will have the same name in the PHP script but different values

Back

What is the htmlspecialchars() function in PHP

Front

This avoids the browser displaying HTML tags and other HTML entities that will alter the output of the webpage, this prevents a user entering HTML into a form and then altering what is displayed

Back

How do you use a JS script to validate a form

Front

in the form add an attribute onsubmite="return validateForm()" this would reference a JS script/function you've written called validateForm()

Back

What are the characteristics of POST messages

Front

- Cannot be cached - Are not kept in the browser history - Cannot be bookmarked - Can transfer unlimited data

Back

How do you start a PHP session

Front

session_start()

Back

What properties should a cookies value have

Front

should be a unique and unforgettable number, it should be meaningful to the server and meaningless to the client

Back

What is contained within a cookie

Front

name, value, expiration date/time, domain, path

Back

What is the syntax for querying MySQL tables

Front

conditions are written as: WHERE column LIKE value

Back

What is the syntax for the LIKE operator

Front

a % sign represents any number of characters (inc 0) an _ represents a single character You place these before or after the value you're querying to make your search broader e.g. Where CustomerName Like "a%" represents any name beginning with a

Back

What is the syntax for the Update method in MySQL

Front

Back

What are the advantages of GET over POST

Front

Useful to bookmark pages Caching- faster response

Back

How do you specify the order a MySQL table is displayed in

Front

at the end of your query add ORDER BY field DESC/ASC;

Back

How do you access cookies

Front

Much like GET and POST you access cookies using the $_COOKIE array indexed by the cookie names

Back

What is a cookie, who can read a cookie

Front

It is a piece of data that the server asks the client to store, and the client returns to the server with its requests Cookies can only be read by the issuing domain

Back

How do you access variables send via POST and GET in PHP scripts

Front

the values are stored in $_POST and $_GET arrays which you can use the access the values as shown in the example. It is good practise to use if(isset()) before using a POST/GET value to avoid errors (as is done in the example)

Back

What is the syntax for defining a textarea in a form

Front

Back

What is the "domain" stored in a cookie

Front

the host that sent the cookie, only the original host will receive the cookie back from the client

Back

What is a PHP session

Front

stores variables across multiple pages. unlike a cookie the information is not stored on the users computer. They hold information about one single user and are available to all pages in one application

Back

How do you define a function in PHP What ways can you pass in values in PHP

Front

function functionname(params){code} You can pass values into functions and make any changes to them global by adding an & sign before the variable. Otherwise any changes will be local

Back

Section 4

(50 cards)

What is phishing in terms of XSS

Front

the attacker manipulates the DOM to add a form that appears to be a part of the website - the user submits it and sends the information to the attacker's server

Back

What is the structure of an HTTP response

Front

Back

What are the 3 ways a server can interpret an HTTP request

Front

- server maps the request into a file on the server and returns the file request to the client - Server maps the request into a program on the server, executes it and returns the output to the client - An error is returned if the request cannot be satisifed

Back

What are the most common codes for an HTTP response

Front

200 - OK 301 - Moved Permanently 404 - Not found 500 - Internal Server error. 200s are mainly +ve 400s are a client error 500s are always a server error

Back

How do you prevent XSS

Front

use htmlentities/htmlspecialchars to sanitise any user input so that the code is no longer interpretable as HTML and will have no effect

Back

What are the pros and cons of sessions

Front

Pros: - Data is held on the server so is more secure - No 4kb restrictoin - No transmission latency Cons: - Still reliant on cookies which can be disabled - Don't persist between browser sessions

Back

How do you use real_escape string to prevent SQL injections

Front

Back

What object do all JS functions below to as default

Front

the window object, so window.myfunction always works if you have defined the function as part of another object

Back

What are the attributes of the model, give a practical example

Front

- Stores data - Does not have any responsibility for presentation matters - Does not do any computation - Model objects often used to store data within a program The model could be implemented as HTML

Back

How do you write to an HTML element using JS

Front

using element.innerHTML

Back

How does HTTP work on a basic level

Front

An HTTP client sends a request message to an HTTP server The server, returns a response message The Uniform Resource locator (URL) is used to uniquely identify a resource over the web

Back

How do you insert JS code into HTML

Front

between <script> and </script> tags

Back

How do you define a variable in JS

Front

using var e.g. var x - 4;

Back

How do you write into an alert box using JS

Front

window.alert()

Back

How do web servers and browser ensure safe transfer of passwords

Front

HTTPS communications using an encrypted channel (either transport layer security (TLS) or secure sockets layer (SSL) Server sends its digital certificate to the browser Once the certificate is received the secure communication channel can be established, handshaking

Back

What are the attributes of the controller, give a practical example

Front

- Sits between the model and the view, acts as an intermediary - Updates models and views when they change The controller is generally the browser

Back

What is the structure of an HTTP Request

Front

Back

What are the 3 types of XSS

Front

Reflect XSS: User is tricked nto requesting an injected URL DOM XSS: when javascript is executed the DOM is changed by malicious script Persistent XSS: a page displays data stored in a database that contains malicious code

Back

What data forms is HTTP the protocl for

Front

- Plaintext - Hypertext - Images - Video - Sound

Back

How do you write into the browser console using JS

Front

console.log()

Back

How can you access properties in JS

Front

Back

What are the two ways to prevent an SQL injection

Front

Using real_escape_string() Using prepared statements

Back

When should you use sessions and when should you use cookies

Front

Cookies should be used to preserve state over a series of unconnected sporadic visits Sessions should be used when the state is to be preserved over a connected sequence of visits.

Back

How do you delete a property in JS

Front

use delete object.property

Back

How can we break a website down from a design perspective and why do we do this

Front

It can be organised into: The model: handles the data and business logic The view: handle user interface application The controller: handle user interface objects and presentation This supports decoupling which reduces dependencies between different components of the system

Back

What is an HTML injection/cross site scripting (XSS)

Front

involves pasting HTML code from a client to a server and back to another client

Back

How do you write into HTML output using JS

Front

document.write()

Back

What are the ways you can close a session or clear all variables

Front

session_unset() removes all the current variables session_destroy() removes all variables and destroys the session until one is started again

Back

How do you iterate through an objects properties

Front

for(property in object)

Back

How do you access session variables

Front

using the $_SESSION array

Back

What are the attributes of the view, give a practical example

Front

- Present the data stored in the model and display in the browser - various approaches and multiple views for the same data e.g. lists, tables, visualzations The view could be implemented as CSS

Back

What is an SQL injection

Front

passing SQL from a web client to a server and onto a database

Back

What are the HTTP request methods

Front

Back

How do you new keyword to define an object in JS

Front

Back

Why should you use a salt

Front

prevents recovery of the password by looking up the hashed password in a rainbow lookup table It prevents 2 users with the same password having the same hashed password

Back

What is the header() command in PHP

Front

it redirects a user to a different page Syntax: header("Location: domain.com/path/to/resource")

Back

How do you add new properties to an object in JS

Front

simply use object.property = "value" and a property with the given name and value will be added to the object

Back

What is a hashing function

Front

it takes a password (string), M and returns a number, H(M). It is a one way function. Even if the input changes a tiny bit, the resulting hash is completely different

Back

What is special about how JS handles function parameters

Front

it doesn't type check them it doesn't check the number of arguments received missing params are just set as undefined

Back

How do you use prepared SQL statements

Front

Back

How can hashing be cracked

Front

Dictionary attack Brute-force attack Look-up tables Rainbow tables

Back

How do you use sessions to allow users to log-in to a site

Front

get the user to enter a username and password. Then check these using a PHP script, If they are correct start a session and assign a session variable for their username. You can then check if the username variable is set to see if a user is logged in. You can also use the session variable to customise the webpage and show their username where appropriate

Back

What are the wrong ways to use a salt

Front

reusing a salt for all users using a very short salt

Back

What is salting

Front

Adding a random string to the password string

Back

How do you define a function in JS

Front

function myFunction(a, b) {code} note that the data type of parameters isn't specified You can assign function to variables as well, so I could say var x = function (a, b) {code} and x(a, b) would run the relevant function

Back

what is the PHP function that can be used to check the contents of a string

Front

preg_match(check-to-carryout, string)

Back

How do sessions work, how are they stored

Front

The session uses the clients cookie storage to save a key which is used to identify one particular repository of variables When a session is opened on another page it scans the computer for a user-key If there is a match, it accesses that session, if not it starts a new session

Back

How do you use salts when creating a password system

Front

Add the random string to the password string, hash the combination of the two, then store the hashed password along with the salt in the database When the user tries to login, retrieve their salt and add it to the password they gave, hash this and see if it matches the hash in the database

Back

what is the PHP strlen() function

Front

it returns the length of a string

Back

How do you define an object using an object literal

Front

A list of name:value pairs inside curly braces

Back

Section 5

(44 cards)

What is a JS object method

Front

it is a property containing a function definition

Back

What is a pseudo-element and how do you use them

Front

They are used to style specified parts of an element, e.g. the first letter/line

Back

What are two issues with AJAX

Front

If JS is disabled then AJAX calls won't work, so you need to have a fallback to manually reload the page in these situations. The use cannot tell that page content is loading when an AJAX call is underway, unlike when they refresh the page. This can be accomplished by using CSS to add a loading icon whilst the AJAX call is still in progress

Back

How do you read data from a csv file in D3

Front

Back

What is the status property of the XMLHttpRequest object

Front

holds the current HTTP response code of the AJAX request

Back

What is D3

Front

It is a JS library for manipulating documents based on data

Back

What are semantic elements in HTML5

Front

These are elements which are named so that they can describe their content. This makes it easier for a screen reader to easily parse the page and identify which elements should be read out to a partially sighted user e.g. ignoring nav elements and reading out article elements. This is far harder for non-semantic elements such as divs which doesn't describe the content that contains them

Back

What basic elements make up a D3 statement

Front

D3 - the main D3 object containing it's methods Select - selects a single element based on CSS selector Append - adds a DOM element to the end of the current selection Content - sets out how the element is going to be displayed/what it will contain

Back

What is the benefit of javascript validation

Front

It prevents unnecessary internet traffic caused by transmitting invalid data and returning error messages

Back

Explain the importance of form validation

Front

Important to ensure invalid data does not reach the database A form can validate the format of the data but not the correctness of the data Validation can take place on both the client and server end

Back

How do you remove an event handler

Front

Back

Discuss the relevance of D3

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With big data there is more data than can be presented reasonably using tables D3 provides a range of techniques for visualising data. It facilitates interaction, meaning users can tailor a visualisation for their own needs. It is well suited to use in a browser given its reliance on SVG

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What are the server response methods of the XMLHttpRequest object

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How do you create an id field in an SQL table

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id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY auto-increment,

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What is event propagation and how do you use it

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This defines the element order when an event occurs. e.g. a p element inside a div, whose event is triggered first if both are activated at the same time. In bubbling the inner most elements event is handled first. In capturing this is reversed the third param of the addEventListener is useCapture, if set to true capturing will be used, if false bubbling

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What is the transition() function in D3. how do you use it

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it interpolates positions between the starting an ending positions of the bar. duration(x) sets how long the transition will take

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Give an example of creating a bar chart using D3

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where sun is an array of values

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What is the syntax of addEventListener

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Why do we use font-family declarations, give an example of a font family

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Because they provide a generic behaviour if the browser doesn't have the specified font, an example is sans-serif or serif

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What are Scalable Vector graphics, How do you use them

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XML-based approach to defining graphics All SVG's sit within an svg HTML element, elements within this define the shape, attributes define the style and size

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What are the benefits of AJAX

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- Read data from a web server after the page has been loaded - Update a web page without reloading the page - Send data to a web server in the background

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What are the methods of the XMLHttpRequest object

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How do you update data using D3

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You change the .data value of a d3 object and it will automatically recalculate the object using that dataset

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How can you assign events to HTML elements

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HTTP vs. HTTPS

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Data transmitted using HTTP may be visible to a man in the middle as it is not encrypted. Whereas HTTPS is encrypted so even if the data is intercepted it won't be decipherable.

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what is the readyState property of the XMLHttpRequest object

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holds the current status of an AJAX request

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What is the HTML DOM

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Document object model, created when a browser loads a web page. The model is constructed as a tree of objects

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How do you access the length of an array in java

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array.length returns the length

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What are the main ways you can select HTML objects using JS

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How do you create a constructor in JS

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What is the flow of control of an AJAX request

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What is the enter() command in D3

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identifies any DOM elements that need to be added. For example if you use it after a .data(dataset) statement it will create the correct number of objects for each element in the dataset

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How do you add elements to JS arrays

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How do you define arrays in Java

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What are all of the on_____ events that you can use

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onload and unload are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page Onchange is often used in combination with validation of input fields Onmouseover and onmouseout onmousedown, onmouseup, onclick

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what is the onreadstatechange property of the XMLHttpRequest object and how do we use it

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this can be defined as a function of our object which will run once the request is completed

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WHat is an XMLHttpRequest Object and how do you define one

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It is an API whose methods transfer data between a web browser and a web server asynchronously Var x = new XMLHttpRequest();

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What does AJAX stand for

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Asynchronous Javascript and XML

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What is NaN

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not a number, indicates that a number is not a legal number

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What is the exist() command in D3

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removes items from the DOM that are no longer needed i.e. do not have a data item allocated to them

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If you have conflicting CSS declarations how do you decide which rule is followed

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The rule with the greatest specificity, the greatest is id, then class then pseudo-elements

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What should be considered when choosing elements for an HTML form

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avoid simple text fields when possible use elements that reflect the type of data that they will be used to collect this minimises the user error and can be used to validate the data

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What are the properties used for retrieve the data from an AJAX request

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What are replaced and non-replaced elements in HTML

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A non-replaced element contains its data within the HTML e.g. paragraph or div a replaced elements fetch their content as the page is loaded e.g. images

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