AP Chemistry Big Idea #3

AP Chemistry Big Idea #3

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Section 1

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Oxidation-Reduction reaction

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Mar 1, 2020

Cards (57)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Oxidation-Reduction reaction

Front

A reaction that results in the change of the oxidation states of some precipitating molecules.

Back

Every reaction has a ______________ , or voltage associated with it.

Front

electric potential

Back

Oxidation number of alkaline earth metals

Front

+2

Back

Oxidation number of Halogens

Front

-1

Back

Reduction

Front

An atom gains electrons, oxidation number decreases

Back

Hydroxide formula

Front

OH-

Back

Endothermic reaction diagram

Front

Back

What are the two solubility rules you need to know for AP?

Front

1. Compounds with alkali metal cation or an ammonium cation are always soluble 2. Compounds with a nitrate anion are always soluble

Back

Cyanide formula

Front

CN-

Back

How do you calculate electric potential?

Front

add the potential for the oxidation half-reaction to the potential for the reduction half-reaction Never multiply the potential for the half reaction by the coefficient

Back

Oxidation number of oxygen

Front

-2

Back

Dichromate formula

Front

(Cr2O7)2-

Back

Acid-base Reaction

Front

A reaction when an evidence reacts with a base to form water and salt

Back

Enthalpy Change equation

Front

Back

Spectator ions

Front

Ions that do not take part in the reaction They start out and end up as free ions

Back

What are some important things to know when dealing with oxidation states?

Front

1. The oxidation state of an atom that is not bonded to an atom of another element is 0. That means either an atom that is not bonded to any other atom or an atom that is bonded to another atom or the same element (O2) 2. The oxidation numbers for all the atoms in a molecule must add up to 0. 3. The oxidation numbers for all atoms in a polyatomic ion must add up to the charge of the ion.

Back

Exothermic reaction

Front

If the products have stronger bonds than the reactants, then the products have lower enthalpy than the reactants and are more stable; in this case energy is released by the reaction

Back

Oxidation state

Front

Indicates the number of of electrons that it gains or loses when it forms a bond.

Back

Synthesis Reactions

Front

When simple compounds are combined to form a single, more complex compound

Back

Basic Rules of Enthalpy

Front

When bonds are formed energy is released. When bonds are broken energy is absorbed.

Back

Permanganate formula

Front

(MnO4)-

Back

How to solve a stoichiometry

Front

1. Convert whatever you are given into moles. 2. The limiting reagent is not necessarily the reactant that you have the least of; it is the reactant that runs out first. 3. Use the balanced equation to determine how many moles of the desired product are generated. 4. Convert moles of product to the desired unit.

Back

Phosphate formula

Front

(PO4)3-

Back

Decomposition

Front

The opposite of synthesis. A reaction where a single compound is split into two or more simple compounds, usually in the presence of heat.

Back

Oxidation

Front

An atom loses electrons and the oxidation number increases

Back

What happens to the reduction potential when a solid is placed into a metallic solution and a new solid forms?

Front

The reduction potential of the metal in solution is greater than that of the solid.

Back

Current

Front

defined as the flow of positive charge, so current is always in the opposite direction from the flow of electrons

Back

Oxidation number of alkali metals

Front

+1

Back

Acetate formula

Front

(C2H3O2)-

Back

Activation Energy Ea

Front

The amount of energy need to reach the transition state. (Find textbook definition)

Back

Catalyst

Front

Speeds up reaction by providing the reactants with an alternate pathway that has a lower activation energy. Lowers activation energy for both forward and reverse reactions so it has no effect on equilibrium conditions.

Back

Oxidation number of transition metals

Front

Have several oxidation states which are differentiated from one another by a Roman numeral in the name of the compound.

Back

Endothermic reaction

Front

If the products have weaker bonds than the reactants, then the products have higher enthalpy than the reactants and are less stable; in this case, energy is absorbed by the reaction

Back

How are electric potentials given?

Front

reduction half reactions you can read them in reverse and flip the sign on the voltage to get oxidation potentials

Back

Anode

Front

where oxidation takes place

Back

Precipitation

Front

When yen aqueous solutions mix, sometimes a new cation/anion pairing can create an insoluble salt

Back

Sulfate formula

Front

(SO4)2-

Back

Galvanic cell

Front

also called voltaic cell a spontaneous redox reaction is used to generate a flow current

Back

Oxidation-reduction reaction

Front

Electrons are exchanged by the reactants, and the oxidation states of some of the reactants are changed over the course of the reaction.

Back

Half reactions

Front

Oxidation and reduction formulas written separately

Back

Which is more likely to occur spontaneously? Endothermic or exothermic

Front

Exothermic. All substances like to be in the lowest possible energy state, which gives them the greatest stability.

Back

Nitrate Formula

Front

(NO3)-

Back

What happens in a galvanic cell?

Front

Two half reactions take place in separate chambers and the electrons that are released by the oxidation reaction pass through a wire to the chamber where they are consumed in the reduction reaction

Back

Enthalpy Change ΔΗ

Front

The enthalpy of a substance is a measure of the energy that is released or absorbed by the substance when bonds are broken and formed during a reaction.

Back

Ammonium formula

Front

(NH4)+

Back

Exothermic Reaction Diagram

Front

Back

What happens to the reduction potential if a solid is placed into a metallic solution and no solid forms?

Front

The reduction potential of the solid is higher.

Back

Oxidation number of group 3A

Front

+3

Back

Carbonate formula

Front

(CO3)2-

Back

Why do ionic substances dissolve in water?

Front

The attraction of a h ions to the dipoles of the water molecules.

Back

Section 2

(7 cards)

Electrolytic Cells

Front

An outside source of voltage is used to force a non-spontaneous redox reaction to take place. Most electrolytic cells occur in aqueous solutions which are created when a chemical dissolves in water.

Back

Equation for current

Front

I = q/t

Back

What happens to the voltage of the cell under standard conditions?

Front

the voltage of the cell is the same as the total voltage of the redox reaction.

Back

Cathode

Front

where reduction takes place

Back

What are the anodes and cathodes in electrolytic cells?

Front

Metal bars that conduct current which do not take part in the reaction.

Back

What are electrolytic cells are used?

Front

Electroplating

Back

What are the steps for electroplating?

Front

1. If you know the current and the time, you can calculate the charge in coulombs. 2.Once you know the charge in coulombs, you know how many electrons were involved in the reaction 3. When you know the number of moles of electrons and you know the half-reaction for the metal, you can find out how many moles of metal plated out. 4. Once you know the number of moles of meta, you can use what you know from stoichiometry to calculate the number of grams of metal.

Back