AP English Rhetorical Terms (COMPLETE)

AP English Rhetorical Terms (COMPLETE)

memorize.aimemorize.ai (lvl 286)
Section 1

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Last updated

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Date created

Mar 1, 2020

Cards (74)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Style

Front

the author's characteristic manner of expression

Back

Narration

Front

the story of events and/or experiences that tells what happened.

Back

Paradox

Front

a phrase or statement that while seemingly contradictory or absurd may actually be well-founded or true EX: "I don't hustle with people who are dishonest." -- Woody Harrelson (from the movie White Men Can't Jump)

Back

Mood

Front

the overall atmosphere of a work

Back

Inverted Order of a Sentence

Front

predicate comes before the subject.

Back

Motif

Front

recurrent images, words, objects, phrases, or actions that tend to unify the work

Back

Periodic sentence

Front

a sentence not grammatically complete before its end

Back

Pun

Front

a play on words that are identical or similar in sound but have sharply diverse meanings EX: When Mercutio is bleeding to death in Romeo and Juliet, he says to his friends, "Ask for me tomorrow, and you shall find a grave man"

Back

Protagonist

Front

the central character of a drama, novel, short story, or narrative poem

Back

Concrete

Front

pertains to actual things, instances, or experiences: opposite of abstract.

Back

Logical Fallacies

Front

methods of pseudo-reasoning that may occur accidentally or may be intentionally contrived to lend plausibility to an unsound argument. See Appendix A for specific fallacies and examples.

Back

Downplaying/Intensifying

Front

methods of drawing attention and diverting attention.

Back

Sarcasm

Front

the use of verbal irony in which a person appears to be praising something but is actually insulting it EX: "As I fell down the stairs headfirst, I heard her say, 'Look at that coordination.'"

Back

Conceit

Front

an elaborate and surprising figure of speech comparing two very dissimilar things. EX: In John Donne's "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning" (1633) separated lovers are likened to the legs of a compass, the leg drawing the circle eventually returning home to "the fixed foot."

Back

Jargon

Front

refers to a specialized language providing a shorthand method of quick communication between people in the same field. EX: The basis of assessment for Schedule D Case I and II, other than commencement and cessation, is what is termed a previous year basis. (legal jargon)

Back

Repetition

Front

reiterating a word or phrase, or rewording the same idea, to secure emphasis

Back

Zeugma (zoog'-ma)

Front

A general term describing when one part of speech (most often the main verb, but sometimes a noun) governs two or more other parts of a sentence (often in a series). EX: [a] Mr. Glowry was horror-struck by the sight of a round, ruddy face and a pair of laughing eyes. [b] The little baby from his crib, the screaming lady off the roof, and the man from the flooded basement were all rescued.

Back

Logical Appeal

Front

using facts, statistics, historical references, or other such proofs in order to convince the audience of one's position

Back

Parallelism

Front

the arrangement of parts of a sentence, sentences, paragraphs, and larger units of composition that one element of equal importance with another is similarly developed and phrased

Back

Denotation

Front

the specific, exact meaning of a word, independent of its emotional coloration or associations

Back

Litotes (li-to'-tees )

Front

understatement, for intensification, by denying the contrary of the thing being affirmed. EX: A few unannounced quizzes are not inconceivable.

Back

Rhetorical question

Front

a question asked solely to produce and effect and not to elicit a reply EX: "When will I ever learn?"

Back

Defensive, Offensive

Front

A method of argumentation in which the speaker or writer defends her own views (defensive) and/or attacks the views of others (offensive).

Back

Diction

Front

the choice of words in a work of literature and an element of style important to the work's effectiveness.

Back

Doublespeak

Front

language used to distort and manipulate rather than to communicate. EX: downsize, RIF (reduction in force): fire employees.

Back

Simile

Front

a figure of speech involving a comparison using like or as EX: "She is as lovely as a summer's day"

Back

Colloquial Expressions

Front

Words or phrases characteristic of or appropriate to ordinary or familiar conversation.

Back

Metaphor

Front

A figure of speech involving an implied comparison. EX: "She is a rose!"

Back

Satire

Front

a technique that points out the fallacies in both people and societal institutions, using iron wit and exaggeration

Back

Juxtaposition

Front

Poetic and rhetorical device placing normally unassociated ideas, words, or phrases next to one another. EX: Robert Frost's poem "Fire and Ice"

Back

Voice

Front

the implied personality the author chooses to adopt

Back

Shift or Turn

Front

a change or movement in a piece resulting from an epiphany, realization, or insight gained by the speaker, a character, or the reader

Back

Synecdoche (sih-NECK-duh-kee)

Front

a type of figurative language in which the whole is used in place of the part or the part is used in place of the whole EX: "Give us this day our daily bread." -- Matthew 6:11 Note: In this case, the part (bread) stands in for the whole (food and perhaps other necessities of life)

Back

Natural Order Sentence

Front

subject comes before the predicate

Back

Point of view

Front

the vantage point from which the author presents the actions of the story.

Back

Personification

Front

attributing human characteristics to nonhuman things EX: "The wind whispers through the trees."

Back

Oxymoron

Front

a form of paradox that combines a pair of opposite terms into a single unusual expression EX: "cold fire," "jumbo shrimp"

Back

Tone

Front

the attitude of the writer or speaker toward his subject

Back

Consonance

Front

The repetition of a constant sound within a series of words to produce a harmonious effect. EX: "And each slow dusk a drawing-down of blinds."

Back

Metonymy (me-TON-uh-me)

Front

A figure of speech characterized by the substitution of a term naming an object closely associated with the word in mind for the word itself. EX: We commonly speak of the king as "the crown" (an object closely associated with kingship thus being made to stand for "king"). "The suits on Wall Street walked off with most of our savings." (suits and Wall Street are both examples of metonymy)

Back

Polysyndeton (paulee-SIN-dih-tawn)

Front

the repetition of conjunctions in close succession for rhetorical effect EX: "Here and there and everywhere."

Back

Onomatopoeia

Front

the use of words that by their sound suggest their meaning. EX: "hiss," "buzz," "whirr," "sizzle"

Back

Ellipsis

Front

The omission of a word or words necessary for complete construction but understood in the context. EX: "The eyes of others our prisons; their thoughts our cages."

Back

Symbol

Front

something concrete (such as an object, person, place, or event) that stands for or represents something abstract (such as an idea, quality, concept, or condition)

Back

Irony

Front

A mode of speech in which words express a meaning opposite to the intended meaning.

Back

Rhyme

Front

the repetition of sounds in two or more words or phrases that appear close to each other

Back

Loose Sentence

Front

A sentence grammatically complete at some point (or points) before the end; opposite of a periodic sentence.

Back

Syntax

Front

the pattern or structure of the word order in a sentence or phrase: the study of grammatical structure

Back

Connotation

Front

the emotional implications that words may carry

Back

Setting

Front

the time and place in which events in a short story novel, play, or narrative poem take place

Back

Section 2

(24 cards)

Abstract

Front

designating qualities of characteristics apart from specific objects or events: it is the opposite of concrete.

Back

Asyndeton (a-SIN-dih-tawn)

Front

The deliberate omission of conjunctions in a series of related clauses. EX: "Be one of the few, the proud, the Marines." -- Marine Corps Advertisement

Back

Hyperbole

Front

A figure of speech in which conscious exaggeration is used without the intent of literal persuasion. EX: "No; this my hand will rather/The multitudinous seas incarnadine/ Making the green one red" (Macbeth)

Back

Allusion

Front

a brief reference to a real or fictional person, place, event, or work of art EX: As the cave's roof collapsed, he was swallowed up in the dust like Jonah, and only his frantic scrabbling behind a wall of rock indicated that there was anyone still alive.

Back

Ethical Appeal

Front

establishing one's credibility with the audience by appearing to be knowledgeable about one's subject and benevolent

Back

Analogy

Front

a process of reasoning that assumes if the two subjects share a number of specific observable qualities then they may be expected to share qualities that have not been observed. EX: "He that voluntarily continues ignorance is guilty of all the crimes which ignorance produces, as to him that should extinguish the tapers of a lighthouse might justly be imputed the calamities of shipwrecks." --Samuel Johnson

Back

Anaphora (an-NAF-ruh)

Front

one of the devices of repetition in which the same expression (word or words) is repeated at the beginning of two or more lines, clauses or sentences. EX: "What we need in the United States is not division. What we need in the United States is not hatred. What we need in the United States is not violence and lawlessness" - Robert F. Kennedy

Back

Call to Action

Front

Writing that urges people to action or promotes change.

Back

Emotional Appeal

Front

exploiting an audience's feelings of pity or fear to make a case

Back

Figurative Language

Front

The use of words outside their literal or usual meanings, used to add freshness and suggest associations and comparisons that create effective images.

Back

Antithesis (an-TIH-theh-sis)

Front

A direct juxtaposition of structurally parallel words, phrases, or clauses for the purpose of contrast. EX: "We observe today not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom, symbolizing an end as well as a beginning, signifying renewal as well as change." -- John F. Kennedy

Back

Assonance

Front

The repetition of accented vowel sounds in a series of words. EX: The words "cry" and "side" have the same vowel sound

Back

Anticipating Audience Response

Front

Anticipating audience response is a rhetorical technique often used to convince an audience is that of anticipating and stating the arguments that one's opponent is likely to give and then answering these arguments even before the opponent has had a chance to voice them.

Back

Epistrophe (eh-PISS-truh-FEE)

Front

Figure of repetition that occurs when the last word or set of words in one sentence, clause, or phrase is repeated one or more times at the end of successive sentences, clauses, or phrases. EX: "...and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth." - Abraham Lincoln

Back

Alliteration

Front

the repetition of initial identical consonant sounds or any vowel sounds in successive or closely associated syllables EX: The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew, the furrow followed free.

Back

Aphorism

Front

a concise statement of a principle or precept given in pointed words. EX: "Life is short, art is long, opportunity fleeting, experimenting dangerous, reasoning difficult."

Back

Allegory

Front

a narrative, either in verse or prose, in which character, action and sometimes setting represent abstract concepts apart from the literal meaning of a story. EX: The Scarlet Letter, Animal Farm

Back

Cacophony

Front

harsh joining of sounds. EX: "My stick fingers click with a snicker" - John Updike

Back

Euphemism

Front

the substitution of an inoffensive, indirect, or agreeable expression for a word or phrase perceived as socially unacceptable or unnecessarily harsh. EX: "overweight" rather than "fat," "disadvantaged" rather than "poor"

Back

Characterization

Front

the techniques used to create and reveal fictional personalities in a work of literature

Back

Imagery

Front

the use of language to convey sensory experience, most often through the creation of pictorial images through figurative language. EX: "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day."

Back

Chiasmus (ki-AZ-mus)

Front

A type of balance in which the second part of the sentence is balanced against the first but with the part reversed (from the Greek letter chi [X]) EX: "My job is not to represent Washington to you, but to represent you to Washington." (Barack Obama) "But O, what damned minutes tells he o'er Who dotes, yet doubts; suspects, yet strong loves." —Shakespeare, Othello 3.3

Back

Antimetabole (an'-ti-me-ta'-bo-lee)

Front

Repetition of words, in successive clauses, in reverse grammatical order. EX: "Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country."JFK

Back

Apostrophe

Front

a figure of speech in which someone (usually, but not always absent), some abstract quality or a nonexistent personage is directly addressed as though present. EX: Shakespeare's Julius Caesar: "For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar's angel. / Judge, O you gods, how dearly Caesar loved him."

Back