AP Chemistry Vocabulary Terms

AP Chemistry Vocabulary Terms

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Atomic solid

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Cards (245)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Atomic solid

Front

a solid that contains atoms at the lattice points

Back

Acid

Front

a substance that produces hydrogen ions in solution; a proton donor

Back

Alkali metal

Front

a Group 1A metal

Back

Alloy

Front

a substance that contains a mixture of elements and has metallic properties

Back

Activation energy

Front

the threshold energy that must be overcome to produce a chemical reaction

Back

Amorphous solid

Front

a solid with considerable disorder in its structure

Back

Amine

Front

an organic base derived from ammonia in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic groups

Back

Acid dissociation constant (Ka)

Front

the equilibrium constant for a reaction in which a proton is removed from an acid by H2O to form the conjugate base and H3O+

Back

Alloy steel

Front

a form of steel containing carbon plus other metals such as chromium, cobalt, manganese, and molybdenum

Back

Aqueous solution

Front

a solution in which water is the dissolving medium or solvent

Back

Antibonding molecular orbital

Front

an orbiting higher in energy than the atomic orbitals of which it is composed

Back

Alkyne

Front

an unsaturated hydrocarbon containinga triple carbon-carbon bond. The general formula is C(n)H(2n-2)

Back

Alkane

Front

a saturated hydrocarbon with the general formula C(n)H(2n+2)

Back

α-Amino acid

Front

an organic acid in which an amino group and an R group are attached to the carbon atom next to the carboxyl group

Back

Atomic radius

Front

half the distance between thenuclei in a molecule consisting of identical atoms

Back

Alpha (α) particle

Front

a helium nucleus

Back

Addition reaction

Front

a reaction in which atoms add to a carbon-carbon multiple bond

Back

Alkene

Front

an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing a carbon-carbon double bond. The general formula is C(n)H(2n)

Back

Barometer

Front

a device for measuring atmospheric pressure

Back

Alkaline earth metal

Front

a Group 2A metal

Back

Alpha-particle production

Front

a common mode of decay for radio-active nuclides in which the mass number changes

Back

Aufbau principle

Front

the principle stating that as protons are added one by one to the nucleus to build up the elements, electrons are similarly added to hydrogen-like orbitals

Back

Atomic weight

Front

the weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occuring element

Back

Aromatic hydrocarbon

Front

one of a special class of cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons, the simplest of which is benzene

Back

Adsorption

Front

the collection of one substance on the surface of another

Back

Base

Front

a substance that produces hydroxide ions in aqueous solution, a proton acceptor

Back

Ampere

Front

the unit of electric current equal to one coulomb of charge per second

Back

Atomic number

Front

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

Back

Actinide series

Front

a group of 14 elements following actinium in the periodic table, in which the 5f orbitals are being filled

Back

Aldehyde

Front

an organic compound containing the carbonyl group bonded to at least one hydrogen atom

Back

Arrhenius concept

Front

a concept postulating that acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution, while bases produce hydroxide ions

Back

Acid rain

Front

a result of air pollution by sulfur dioxide

Back

Ball-and-stick model

Front

a molecular model that distorts the sizes of atoms but shows bond relationships clearly

Back

Avogadro's number

Front

the number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure ^(12)C, equal to 6.022 x 10^(23)

Back

Alcohol

Front

an organic compound in which the hydroxyl group is a substituent on a hydrocarbon

Back

Amphoteric substance

Front

a substance that can behave either as an acid or as a base

Back

Acidic oxide

Front

a covalent oxide that dissolves in water to give an acidic solution

Back

Arrhenius equation

Front

the equation representing the rate constant as k = Ae^[-(E[a])/(RT)], where A represents the product of the collision frequency and the steric factor, and e^[-(E[a])/(RT)] is the fraction of collisions with sufficient energy to product a reaction

Back

Anode

Front

the electrode in a galvanic cell at which oxidation occurs

Back

Accuracy

Front

the agreement of a particular value with a true value

Back

Atmosphere

Front

the mixture of gases that surrounds the earth's surfaces

Back

Air pollution

Front

contamination of the atmosphere, mainly by the gaseous products of transportation and production of electricity

Back

Band model

Front

a molecular model for metals in which the electrons are assumed to travel around the metal crystal in molecular orbitals formed from the valence atomic orbitals of the metal atoms

Back

Autoionization

Front

the transfer of a proton from one molecule to another of the same substance

Back

Anion

Front

a negative ion

Back

Acid-base indicator

Front

a substance that marks the end point of an acid-base titration by changing color

Back

Angular momentum quantum number (ℓ)

Front

the quantumnumber relating to the shape of an atomicorbital, which can assume any integral value from 0 to 'n-1' for each value of 'n'

Back

Avogadro's law

Front

equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of particles

Back

Activated complex (transition state)

Front

the arrangement of atoms found at the tope of the potential energy barrier as a reaction proceeds from reactants to products

Back

Addition polymerization

Front

a type of polymerization in which the monomers simply add together to form the polymer, with no other products

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

compound

Front

substance with constant composition that can be broken down into elements by chemical processes

Back

Cathode

Front

the electrode in a galvanic cell at which reduction occurs

Back

Beta (β) particle

Front

an electron produced in radioactivedecay

Back

Buffering capacity

Front

the ability of a buffered solution to absorb protons or hydroxide ions without a significant change in pH; determined by the magnitudes of [HA] and [A-] in the solution

Back

Carboxylic acid

Front

an organic compound containing the carboxyl group; an acid with the general formula RCOOH

Back

Chemical bond

Front

the force or, more accurately, the energy, that holds two atoms together in a compound

Back

Boyle's law

Front

the volume of a given sample of gas at constant temperature varies inversely with the pressure

Back

common ion effect

Front

shift in equilibrium position caused by addition or presence of ion involved in equilibrium reaction

Back

Carboxyl group

Front

the -COOH group in an organic acid

Back

colligative properties

Front

properties of solution that depend only on the number, and not on the identity, of the solute particles

Back

complete ionic equation

Front

equation that shows all substances that are strong electrolytes as ions

Back

Chromatography

Front

the general name for a series of methods for separating mixtures by employing a system with a mobile phase and a stationary phase

Back

Bond energy

Front

the energy required to break a given chemical bond

Back

Charles' law

Front

the volume of a given sample of gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to the temperature in kelvins

Back

Bond length

Front

the distance between the nuclei of the two atoms connected by a bond; the distance where the total energy of a diatomic molecule is minimal

Back

Bonding molecular orbital

Front

an orbital lower in energy than the atomic orbitals or which it is composed

Back

Bonding pair

Front

an electron pair found in the space between two atoms

Back

complex ion

Front

charged species consisting of metal ion surrounded by ligands

Back

Calorimetry

Front

the science of measuring heat flow

Back

Basic oxide

Front

an ionic oxide that dissolves in water to produce a basic solution

Back

Bimolecular step

Front

a reaction involving the collision of two molecules

Back

Bond order

Front

the difference between the number of bonding electrons and the number of antibonding electrons, divided by two. It is an index of bond strength

Back

Carbohydrate

Front

a polyhydroxyl ketone or polyhydroxyl aldehyde or a polymer composed of these

Back

Basic oxygen process

Front

a process for producing steel by oxidizing and removing the impurities in iron using a high-pressure blast of oxygen

Back

Brønsted-Lowry model

Front

a model proposing that an acid is a proton donor, and a base is a proton acceptor

Back

Biomolecule

Front

a molecule responsible for maintaining and/or reproducing life

Back

Borane

Front

a covalent hydride of boron

Back

Buffered solution

Front

a solution that resists a changein its pH when either hydroxide ions or protons are added

Back

collision model

Front

model based on idea that molecules must collide to react; used to account for the observed characteristics of reaction rates

Back

Carbon steel

Front

an alloy of iron containing up to about 1.5% carbon

Back

Chemical kinetics

Front

the area of chemistry that concerns reaction rates

Back

Chemical stoichiometry

Front

the calculation of the quantities of material consumed and produced in chemical reactions

Back

Cell potential (electromotive force)

Front

the driving force in a galvanic cell that pulls electrons from the reducing agent in one compartment to the oxidizing agent in the other

Back

Chemical formula

Front

the representation of a molecule in which the symbols for the elements areused to indicate the types of atoms present and subscripts are used to show the relative numbers of atoms

Back

Bidentate ligand

Front

a ligand that can form two bonds to a metal ion

Back

combustion reaction

Front

vigorous and exothermic reaction that takes place between certain substances, particularly organic compounds, and oxygen

Back

Binding energy (nuclear)

Front

the energy required to decompose a nucleus into its component nucleus

Back

Beta-particle production

Front

a decay process for radioactive nuclides in which the mass number remains constant and the atomic number changes. The net effect is to change a neutron to a proton

Back

Cation

Front

a positive ion

Back

Binary compound

Front

a two-element compound

Back

Chemical change

Front

the change of substances into other substances through a reorginzation of the atoms; a chemical reaction

Back

Battery

Front

a group of galvanic cells connected in series

Back

Chemical equilibrium

Front

a dynamic reaction system in which the concentrations of all reactants and products remain constant as a function of time

Back

Chain reaction (nuclear)

Front

a self-sustaining fission process caused by the production or neutrons that proceed to split other nuclei

Back

Chemical equation

Front

a representation of a chemical reaction showing the relative numbers of reactant and product molecules

Back

Capillary action

Front

the spontaneous rising of a liquid in a narrow tube

Back

Chelating ligand (chelate)

Front

a ligand having more than one atom with a long pair that can be used to bond to a metal ion

Back

coagulation

Front

destruction of colloid by causing particles to aggregate and settle out

Back

Catalyst

Front

a substance that speeds up a reaction without being consumed

Back

Cathode rays

Front

the "rays" emanating from the negative electrode (cathode) in a partially evacuated tube; a stream of electrons

Back

Section 3

(50 cards)

covalent bonding

Front

type of bonding in which electrons are shared by atoms

Back

dipole-dipole attraction

Front

attractive force resulting when polar molecules line up so that the positive and negative ends are close to each other

Back

concentration cell

Front

galvanic cell in which both compartments contain the same components, but at different concentrations

Back

electromagnetic radiation

Front

radiant energy that exhibits wavelike behavior and travels through space at the speed of light in a vacuum

Back

electron spin quantum number

Front

a quantum number representing one of the two possible values for the electron spin; either +(1/2) or -(1/2)

Back

electrolyte

Front

material that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts an electric current

Back

Coulomb's Law

Front

E= 2.31 x 10^-19 (Q1Q2/r), where E is the energy of interaction between a pair of ions, expressed in joules; r is the distance between the ion centers in nm; and Q1 and Q2 are the numerical ion charges

Back

condensed states of matter

Front

liquids and solids

Back

core electron

Front

inner electron in an atom

Back

electrical conductivity

Front

ability to conduct an electric current

Back

coordination compound

Front

compound composed of complex ion and counter ions sufficient to give no net charge

Back

corrosion

Front

process by which metals are oxidized in the atmosphere

Back

condensation polymerization

Front

type of polymerization in which the formation of a small molecule, such as water, accompanies the extension of the polymer chain

Back

coordination number

Front

number of bonds formed between the metal ion and the ligands in a complex ion

Back

diffusion

Front

mixing of gases

Back

conjugate acid-base pair

Front

two species related to each other by the donating and accepting of a single proton

Back

continuous spectrum

Front

spectrum that exhibits all the wavelengths of visible light

Back

dry cell battery

Front

common battery used in calculators, watches, radios, and tape players

Back

density

Front

property of matter representing the mass per unit volume

Back

electron affinity

Front

the energy change associated with the addition of an electron to a gaseous atom

Back

dimer

Front

molecule formed by the joining of two identical monomers

Back

critical temperature

Front

temperature above which vapor cannot be liquefied no matter what pressure is applied

Back

coordinate covalent bond

Front

metal-ligand bond resulting from the interaction of a lewis base (ligand) and a lewis acid (metal ion)

Back

electrochemistry

Front

study of the interchange of chemical and electrical energy

Back

dilution

Front

process of adding solvent to lower the concentration of solute in a solution

Back

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

Front

huge nucleotide polymer having a double-helical structure with complementary bases on the two strands. its major functions are protein synthesis and the storage and transport of genetic information

Back

diamagnetism

Front

type of magnetism, associated with paired electrons, that causes a substance to be repelled from the inducing magnetic field

Back

conjugate base

Front

what remains of an acid molecule after a proton is lost

Back

electronegativitiy

Front

the tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself

Back

dialysis

Front

phenomenon in which a semipermeable membrane allows transfer of both solvent molecules and small solute molecules and ions

Back

electrolysis

Front

process that involves forcing a current through a cell to cause a nonspontaneous chemical reaction to occur

Back

desalination

Front

removal of dissolved salts from an aqueous solution

Back

effusion

Front

passage of a gas through a tiny orifice into an evacuated chamber

Back

condensation

Front

process by which vapor molecules reform a liquid

Back

conjugate acid

Front

species formed when proton is added to base

Back

control rods

Front

rods in nuclear reactor composed of substances that absorb neutrons. these rods regulate the power level of the reactor

Back

electron

Front

a negatively charged particle that moves around the nucleus of an atom

Back

distillation

Front

method for separating the components of a liquid mixture that depends on differences in the ease of vaporization of the components

Back

crystalline solid

Front

solid with a regular arrangement of its components

Back

condensation reaction

Front

reaction in which two molecules are joined, accompanied by the elimination of a water molecule

Back

counterions

Front

anions or cations that balance the charge on the complex ion in a coordination compound

Back

differential rate law

Front

expression that gives the rate of a reaction as a function of concentrations; often called rate law

Back

coordination isomerism

Front

isomerism in coordination compound in which the composition of the coordination sphere of a metal ion varies

Back

critical mass

Front

mass of fissionable material required to produce a self-sustaining chain reaction

Back

electrolytic cell

Front

cell that uses electrical energy to produce a chemical change that would otherwise not occur spontaneously

Back

degenerate orbitals

Front

group of orbitals with the same energy

Back

dipole moment

Front

property of a molecule whose charge distribution can be represented by a center of positive charge and a center of negative charge

Back

double bond

Front

bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms

Back

critical point

Front

point on a phase diagram at which the temperature and pressure have their critical values; the end point of the liquid-vapor line

Back

Dalton's law of partial pressures

Front

for a mixture of gases in a container, the total pressure exerted is the sum of the pressures that each gas would exert if it were alone

Back

Section 4

(50 cards)

element

Front

a substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical or physical means

Back

equilibrium position

Front

particular set of equilibrium concentrations

Back

entropy

Front

a thermodynamic function that measures randomness or disorder

Back

half-life (of a radioactive sample)

Front

time required for the number of nuclides in a radioactive sample to reach half of the original value

Back

hess's law

Front

in going from a particular set of reactants to a particular set of products, the enthalpy change is the same whether the reaction takes place in one step or in a series of steps

Back

heterogeneous equilibrium

Front

equilibrium involving reactants and/or products in more than one phase

Back

fossil fuel

Front

coal, petroleum, or natural gas; consists of carbon-based molecules derived from decomposition of once-living organisms

Back

geometrical (cis-trans) isomerism

Front

isomerism in which atoms or groups of atoms can assume different positions around a rigid ring or bond

Back

half-life (of a reactant)

Front

time required for a reactant to reach half of its original concentration

Back

fission

Front

process of using a neuron to split a heavy nucleus into two nuclei with smaller mass numbers

Back

ester

Front

an organic compound produced by the reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol

Back

equilibrium constant

Front

value obtained when equilibrium concentrations of the chemical species are substituted in the equilibrium expression

Back

endpoint

Front

point in a titration at which the indicator changes color

Back

galvanizing

Front

process in which steel is coated with zinc to prevent corrosion

Back

equilibrium point

Front

position where the free energy of a reaction system has its lowest possible value

Back

heat

Front

energy transferred between two objects due to a temperature difference between them

Back

heat of vaporization

Front

energy required to vaporize one mole of a liquid at a pressure of one atmosphere

Back

elementary step

Front

a reaction whose rate law can be written from its molecularity

Back

electron capture

Front

a process in which one of the inner-orbital electrons in an atom is captured by the nucleus

Back

fuel cell

Front

galvanic cell for which the reactants are continuously supplied

Back

glass electrode

Front

electrode for measuring pH from the potential difference that develops when it is dipped into an aqueous solution containing H+ ions

Back

equivalence point (stoichiometric point)

Front

point in a titration when enough titrant has been added to react exactly with the substance in solution being titrated

Back

enzyme

Front

a large molecule, usually a protein, that catalyzes biological reactions

Back

Graham's law of effusion

Front

rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass of its particles

Back

half-reactions

Front

two parts of an oxidation-reduction reaction, one representing oxidation, the other reduction

Back

halogen

Front

Group 7A element

Back

heisenberg uncertainty principle

Front

a principal stating that there is a fundamental limitation to how precisely both the position and momentum of a particle can be known at a given time

Back

empirical formula

Front

simplest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound

Back

ground state

Front

lowest possible energy state of an atom or molecule

Back

functional group

Front

atom or group of atoms in hydrocarbon derivatives that contains elements in addition to carbon and hydrogen

Back

enthalpy

Front

property of a system equal to E+PV, where E is the internal energy of the system, P is the pressure of the system, and V is the volume of the system

Back

free energy

Front

thermodynamic function equal to the enthalpy (H) minus the product of the entropy (S) and the Kelvin temperature (T); G=H-TS

Back

heat of fusion

Front

enthalpy change that occurs to melt a solid at its melting point

Back

endothermic

Front

refers to a reaction where energy (as heat) flows into the system

Back

energy

Front

the capacity to do work or to cause heat flow

Back

henry's law

Front

amount of a gas dissolved in a solution is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the solution

Back

heating curve

Front

plot of temperature vs. time for a substance where energy is added at a constant rate

Back

gamma (γ) ray

Front

high-energy photon

Back

filtration

Front

method for separating the components of a mixture containing a solid and a liquid

Back

exothermic

Front

reaction where energy (as heat) flows out of the system

Back

frequency

Front

number of waves (cycles) per second that pass a given point in space

Back

faraday

Front

constant representing the charge on one mole of electrons; 96,485 coulombs

Back

fusion

Front

process of combining two light nuclei to form a heavier, more stable nucleus

Back

equilibrium expression

Front

the expression obtained by multiplying the product concentrations and dividing by the multiplied reactant concentrations, with each concentration raised to a power represented by the coefficient in the balanced equation

Back

galvanic cell

Front

device in which chemical energy from a spontaneous redox reaction is changed to electrical energy that can be used to do work

Back

heat capacity

Front

amount of energy required to raise the temperature of an object by one degree Celsius

Back

homogeneous equilibrium

Front

equilibrium system where all reactants and products are in the same phase

Back

first law of thermodynamics

Front

energy of the universe is constant

Back

enthalpy (heat) of fusion

Front

the enthalpy change that occurs to melt a solid at its melting point

Back

group (of the periodic table)

Front

vertical column of elements having the same valence electron configuration and showing similar properties

Back

Section 5

(45 cards)

ligand

Front

neutral molecule or ion having a lone pair of electrons that can be used to form a bond to a metal ion; a lewis base

Back

hybridization

Front

mixing of the native orbitals on a given atom to form special atomic orbitals for bonding

Back

isomers

Front

species with the same formula but different properties

Back

lanthanide series

Front

group of 14 elements following lanthium in the periodic table in which the 4f orbitals are being filled

Back

kinetic energy

Front

(1/2mv^2) energy due to the motion of an object; dependent on the mass of the object and the square of its velocity

Back

ideal gas law

Front

equation of state for a gas, where the state of the gas is its condition at a given time; expressed by PV=nRT, where P is pressure, V is volume, n is moles of the gas, R is the universal gas constant, and T is absolute temperature

Back

hypothesis

Front

one or more assumptions put forth to explain the observed behavior of nature

Back

hydrogen bonding

Front

unusually strong dipole-dipole attractions that occur among molecules in which hydrogen is bonded to a highly electronegative atom

Back

hydrocarbon

Front

compound composed of carbon and hydrogen

Back

ionic solid (salt)

Front

solid containing cations and anions that dissolves in water to give a solution containing the separated ions which are mobile and thus free to conduct electrical current

Back

hund's rule

Front

lowest energy configuration for an atom is the one having the maximum number of unpaired electrons allowed by the Pauli exclusion principle in a particular set of degenerate orbitals, with all unpaired electrons having parallel spins

Back

lewis base

Front

electron pair donor

Back

lattice energy

Front

energy change occuring when separated gaseous ions are packed together to form ionic solid

Back

law of definite proportion

Front

given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass

Back

lone pair

Front

an electron pair that is localized on a given atom; an electron pair not involved in bonding

Back

isoelectronic ions

Front

ions containing the same number of electrons

Back

law of multiple proportions

Front

when two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of the masses of the second element that combine with one gram of the first element can always be reduced to small whole numbers

Back

intermolecular forces

Front

relatively weak interactions that occur between molecules

Back

le chatelier's principle

Front

if a change is imposed on a system at equilibrium, the position of the equilibrium will shift in a direction that tends to reduce the effect of that change

Back

law of mass action

Front

general description of the equilibrium condition

Back

intermediate

Front

species that is neither a reactant nor a product but that is formed and consumed in the reaction sequence

Back

lattice

Front

3D system of points designating the positions of the centers of the components of a solid

Back

ion

Front

atom or group of atoms that has a net positive or negative charge

Back

indicator

Front

chemical that changes color and is used to mark the end point of a titration

Back

ionic compound (binary)

Front

compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal to form a cation and an anion

Back

lewis structure

Front

diagram of a molecule showing how the valence electrons are arranged among the atoms in the molecule

Back

ionic bonding

Front

electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions

Back

ketone

Front

organic compound containing the carboxyl group bonded to two carbon atoms

Back

isotopes

Front

atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons

Back

kinetic molecular theory (KMT)

Front

model that assumes that an ideal gas is composed of tiny particles (molecules) in constant motion

Back

internal energy

Front

property of system that can be changed by a flow of work, heat, or both; ΔE= q+w, where ΔE is the change in the internal energy of the system, q is heat, and w is work

Back

hydride

Front

binary compound containing hydrogen

Back

limiting reactant (limiting reagent)

Front

reactant that is completely consumed when a reaction is run to completion

Back

hydronium ion

Front

the H3O+ ion; a hydrated proton

Back

hybrid orbitals

Front

set of atomic orbitals adopted by an atom in a molecule different from those of the atom in the free state

Back

law of conservation of mass

Front

mass is neither created nor destroyed

Back

integrated rate law

Front

expression that shows concentration of reactant as function of time

Back

law of conservation of energy

Front

energy can be converted from one form to another but can be neither created nor destroyed

Back

hydration

Front

interaction between solute particles and water molecules

Back

london dispersion forces

Front

forces, existing among noble gas atoms and nonpolar molecules, that involve an accidental dipole that induces a momentary dipole in a neighbor

Back

lewis acid

Front

electron pair acceptor

Back

ion- product (dissociation) constant (Kw)

Front

equilibrium constant for the auto-ionization of water; Kw= [H+][OH-]. at 25°C, Kw equals 1.0x10^-14

Back

ideal solution

Front

solution whose vapor pressure is directly proportional to the mole fraction of solvent present

Back

localized electron (LE) model

Front

model which assumes that a molecule is composed of atoms that are bound together by sharing pairs of electrons using the atomic orbitals of the bound atoms

Back

line spectrum

Front

spectrum showing only certain discrete wavelengths

Back