AP Psychology Exam - Brain Anatomy/Functions

AP Psychology Exam - Brain Anatomy/Functions

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Section 1

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Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

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Last updated

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Date created

Mar 1, 2020

Cards (39)

Section 1

(39 cards)

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Front

Lies outside the CNS; includes all the sensory and motor neurons, and subdivisions called the autonomic and somatic nervous systems.

Back

Split Brain

Front

Result of splitting the corpus callosum; used when seizures become too much and patient has no other option to undergo

Back

Parietal Lobes

Front

Processes sensory information including touch, temperature, and pain

Back

Nodes of Ranvier

Front

Part of neuron; regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheath along the axon

Back

Pituitary Gland

Front

The "master" gland that produces stimulating hormones which produce secretion other glands of the endocrine system

Back

Pineal Gland

Front

Endocrine gland located in the brain that produces melatonin and helps regulate the circadian rhythm

Back

Neuron

Front

Basic unit of structure and functions the nervous system; neurons receive and process and transmit information to the rest of the body

Back

Frontal Lobes

Front

Interpret and control emotional behaviors, make decisions, and carry out plans

Back

Cell body (Soma)

Front

Part of neuron; contains nucleus

Back

Hypothalamus

Front

Controls drives and the body's maintenance activities; threshold for rage behavior; activation of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, and secretion of hormones of the pituitary.

Back

Plasticity

Front

The brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience

Back

Axon

Front

Part of neuron; transmits an action potential (movement of potassium and sodium ions)

Back

Association Areas

Front

Areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in higher mental functions such as thinking, planning, and communicating

Back

Terminal Buttons

Front

Part of neuron; tips at the ends of axons that secrete neurotransmitters when stimulated by the action potential

Back

Somatic Nervous System

Front

Subdivision of the PNS that includes motor nerves that stimulate skeletal (voluntary) muscles

Back

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

Front

Subdivision of the PNS that includes motor nerves that innervate smooth (involuntary) responses and heart muscle.

Back

Broca's Area

Front

Produces speech

Back

Dendrites

Front

Part of neuron; contain receptor sites for receiving information

Back

Cerebellum

Front

Controls posture, equilibrium, and movement

Back

Glial Cells

Front

Supportive cells of the nervous system that guide the growth of developing neurons: help provide nutrition for and get rid of wastes of neurons

Back

Angular gyrus

Front

Transforms visual representations into an auditory code

Back

Thalamus

Front

Relays sensory information to/from appropriate areas of cerebral cortex

Back

Pons

Front

Part of the reticular formation; critical for arousal and wakefulness

Back

Myelin Sheath

Front

Part of neuron; fatty covering of the axon made of glial cells, speeds up conduction of the action potential

Back

Medulla Oblongata

Front

Regulates heart rhythm, blood flow, breathing rate, digestion, vomiting

Back

Temporal Lobes

Front

Primary area for hearing, understanding language

Back

Occipital Lobes

Front

Processes visual information

Back

Amygdala

Front

Influences emotions such as aggression, fear, and self-protective behaviors

Back

Synaptic Vesicles

Front

Part of neuron; tiny sacs located in the terminal buttons

Back

Adrenal Glands

Front

Atop kidneys, produce cortisol, epinephrine, and norephinephrine (not in brain)

Back

Hippocampus

Front

Has to do with new memories, and learning

Back

Basal ganglia

Front

Regulates initiation of movements, balance, eye movements, and posture.

Back

Corpus Callosum

Front

Large band of neural fibers that connect the two brain hemispheres

Back

Wernicke's Area

Front

Controls the understanding of language

Back

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Front

Brain and spinal cord

Back

Cerebral Cortex

Front

Center for higher-order processing such as thinking, planning, and judgement; receives and processes sensory information and directs movement

Back

Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS)

Front

Subdivision of the PNS and ANS that arouses the body; "fight or flight response."

Back

Synapse

Front

Part of neuron; extremely narrow space between terminal button of the sending neuron and the receptor site of the receiving dendrite

Back

Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS)

Front

Subdivision of the PNS and ANS that calms the body and restores normal body processes.

Back