AP Human Geography: Geography

AP Human Geography: Geography

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Section 1

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space

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Last updated

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Date created

Mar 1, 2020

Cards (74)

Section 1

(50 cards)

space

Front

geometric surface of the Earth

Back

absolute location

Front

defines a point or place on the map using coordinates such as latitude and longitude

Back

level of aggregation

Front

the level at which you group things together for examination

Back

Central Place Theory

Front

developed in the 1930s by the German geographer Walter Christaller, saw the economic world as an abstract spatial model, in which city location and the level of urban economic exchange could be analyzed using central places within hexagonal market areas, which overlapped each other at different scales

Back

agglomeration

Front

when clustering occurs purposefully around a central point or an economic growth pole

Back

place

Front

an area of bounded space of some human importance

Back

situation

Front

refers to the place's interrelatedness with other places, NYC and New England, port-of-call for Atlantic Circular Trade

Back

map scale

Front

describes the ratio of distance on a map and distance in the real world in absolute terms

Back

linguistic region

Front

everyone speaks the same language, but can be very different culturally

Back

culture region boundaries

Front

The American "Dixie" south, fuzzy borders

Back

relative location

Front

refers to the location of a place compared to a known place or geographic feature, McLean and DC

Back

distance decay

Front

means that the further away different places are from a place of origin, the less likely interaction will be with the original place

Back

metes and bounds

Front

Back

relative scale

Front

(AKA the scale of analysis) which describes the level of aggregation

Back

absolute distance

Front

in terms of linear units

Back

linear

Front

if the pattern is a straight line

Back

agricultural density

Front

refers to the number of people per square unit of land actively under cultivation

Back

Ecotone

Front

the environmental transition zone between two biomes

Back

vernacular region

Front

based upon the perception or collective mental map of the region's residents

Back

North and South Poles

Front

90 degrees latitude

Back

formal region

Front

an area of bounded space that possesses some homogenous characteristic or uniformity

Back

political region boundaries

Front

Boundary between countries, finite and well-defined

Back

region

Front

a type of place

Back

space-time compression

Front

decresed time and relative distance between places

Back

place-specific culture

Front

ex. Sante Fe, Mexico, a complex mix of multiple Native American, Spanish colonial, and modern American influences based upon the sequence of past and current societal influences

Back

Equator

Front

0 latitude

Back

arithmetic density

Front

the number of things per square unit of distance

Back

intervening opportunity

Front

the shoppers who are "just passing through", who see a very brief intervening opportunity to do some discount shopping

Back

scale

Front

relationship of an object or place to the earth as a whole

Back

International Date Line (sort of)

Front

180 degrees longitude

Back

sequent occupancy

Front

the succession of groups and cultural influences throughout a place's history

Back

site

Front

the physical characteristics of a place, such as the fact that NYC is located on a large, deep water harbor, next to the Atlantic ocean

Back

toponym

Front

a place name

Back

market area

Front

a type of functional region, home pro sport team example, more coverage and media in the city, diminishes as you move away

Back

Environmental region boundaries

Front

transitional and measurable

Back

cluster

Front

when things are grouped together

Back

random pattern

Front

when there is no rhyme or reason to the distribution of a spatial phenomenon

Back

core and periphery

Front

Mormon culture in Salt Lake City and the greater Western US

Back

Prime Meridian

Front

0 degrees longitude

Back

scaterred

Front

objects that are normally ordered but appeared dispersed

Back

modes of transportation

Front

airplanes, reduce travel time between two distant points, and as a result increase interaction

Back

sinuous

Front

if the pattern is wavy

Back

area of influence

Front

outlet malls, shoppers travelling from longer distances but making a fewer number of trips

Back

relative distance

Front

in terms of the degree of interaction between places or in units of time traveled

Back

central places

Front

any node of human activity

Back

functional region

Front

areas that have a central place (or node) that is a focus or point of origin that expresses some practical purpose, the influence of this point is strongest in the areas close to the center, and the strength of influence diminishes as distance increases from that point

Back

Tobler's Law

Front

a principle that expresses relative distance, states that all places are interrelated, but closer places are more related than further ones

Back

friction of distance

Front

the increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance

Back

physiologic density

Front

measures the number of people per square unit of arable (being farmed or could be farmed) land

Back

township and range

Front

based upon lines of latitude and longitude

Back

Section 2

(24 cards)

contagious

Front

the pattern begins at a point of origin and then moves outward to nearby locations, especially those on adjoining transportation lines, this could be used to describe a disease but can also describe the movement of other things, such as news in rural regions

Back

flow-line maps

Front

Back

stimulus diffusion

Front

here a general and underlying principle diffuses and then stimulates the creation of new products or ideas

Back

urban models

Front

try to show how different cities have similar spatial relationships and economic or social structures

Back

chloropleth maps

Front

express the geographic variability of a particular theme using color variations

Back

non-spatial models

Front

the demographic transition model, for instance, uses population data to construct a general model of the dynamic growth in national scale populations without reference to space

Back

GPS

Front

Global Positioning Systems, utilize a network of satellites, which emit a measurable radio signal, when this signal is available from three or more Navstar satellites, a GPS receiver is able to triangulate a coordinate location and display map data for the user

Back

dot-density maps

Front

Back

cartograms

Front

Back

equal-area projections

Front

attempt to maintain the relative spatial science and the areas on the map, however these can distort the actual shape of polygons, such as the Lambert projections bending and squishing the northern Canadian islands to keep them at the same map scale as southern Canada on a flat sheet of paper

Back

Robinson projection and Goode's homolosine projection

Front

map projections that try to balance area and form, sacrificing a bit of both to create a more visually practical representation on the earth's surface

Back

gravity model

Front

a mathematical model that is used in a number of different types of spatial analysis, used to calculate transportation flow between two points, determine the area of influence of a city's businesses, and estimate the flow of migrants to a particular place: Equation - (Location1Population x Location2Population)/Distance^2

Back

relocation diffusion

Front

the pattern begins at a point of origin and then crosses a significant physical barrier, such as an ocean, mountain range, or desert, then relocates on the other side, often the journey can influence and modify the items being diffused

Back

GIS

Front

Geographical Information Systems, incorporate one r more data layers in a computer program capable of spatial analysis and mapping, data layers are numerical, coded, and textual data that is attributed to specific geographic coordinates or areas

Back

model

Front

an abstract generalization of real-world geographies that share a common pattern

Back

spatial models

Front

attempt to show the commonalities in pattern among similar landscpaes

Back

Expansion diffusion

Front

the pattern originates in a central place and then expands outward in all directions to other locations

Back

Aerial photography and Satellite based remote sensing

Front

make up a large-amount of the geographic and GIS data used today, aerial photographs are images of the earth from aircraft, printed on film, while remote sensing satellites use a computerized scanner to record data from the earth's surface, these data include not only visual light waverlengths, but also infrared and radar information

Back

hierarchical diffusion

Front

the pattern originates in a first order location then moves down to second-order locations and from each of these to subordinate locations at increasingly local scales

Back

topographic map

Front

shows the contour lines of elevation, as well as the urban and vegetation surface with road, building, river, and other natural landscape features. These maps are highly accurate in terms of location and topography. They are used for engineering surveys and land navigation, especially in wilderness regions

Back

isoline maps

Front

Back

conformal projections

Front

attempt to maintain the shape of polygons on the map, the downside is that conformal projections can distort the relative area from one part of the map to the other, for instance, in the commonly used Mercator projection, the shape of Greenland is preserved, but it appears to be much larger in size than it actually is

Back

thematic map

Front

a number of different map types: chloropleth maps, isoline maps, dot density maps, flow-line maps, cartograms

Back

concentric zone model

Front

cost-to-distance relationship in urban real estate prices, the resulting bid-rent curve explains why land prices are relatively low in suburban areas, but exponentially higher in the central business distrcit

Back