Section 1

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animal viruses

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Date created

Mar 14, 2020

Cards (52)

Section 1

(50 cards)

animal viruses

Front

______ viruses can only infect _____ cells. common causes for diseases

Back

living characteristics of viruses

Front

can reproduce but only inside a living cell, can mutate or change, have DNA or RNA, their genome may consist of only 4 genes or up to 100 genes

Back

antibiotic

Front

viruses are not affected by any known

Back

Saprophytes

Front

live on dead organic matter, important decomposers

Back

The Lytic Cycle

Front

a virus enters a cell, replicates, and bursts the host cell

Back

Nonliving characteristics of viruses

Front

non-cellular, no metabolism, food or energy requirement, can be crystallized and dehydrated and stored indefinitely. they come to "life" only when injected inside a living cell

Back

Virus

Front

an infectious particle that is nonliving and uses cells to make more viruses

Back

2 reproductive possibilities

Front

1. some replicate and immediately killing the host cell 2. others replicate and don't destroy the host cell

Back

tissue

Front

viruses of Eukaryotes are usually _______ specific

Back

RNA Viruses

Front

flu, cold, measles, mumps, AIDS, and polio

Back

Host

Front

the living organism the parasite lives on

Back

Bacteriophages

Front

viruses that infect only certain types of bacteria

Back

Thermoacidophiles

Front

Live in extremely acidic and high temperature environments

Back

prokaryotic reproduction

Front

_________ limited by eventual exhausting of food supply, being poisoned by their own metabolic waste, competition from others microbes, being consumed by other organisms

Back

plant viruses

Front

______ viruses can only infect ______ cells most are RNA not DNA Injury to the ______ allows them past the epiderms insects can carry and transmit them

Back

virulent phage

Front

A phage that reproduces only by a lytic cycle.

Back

steps of lytic cycle

Front

attachment, entry, synthesis, assembly, release. ignore the left side of the pic.

Back

reverse transcriptase

Front

Retrovirus enzyme that transcribes their RNA template into DNA. The DNA enters the cell nucleus and integrates into the DNA of a chromosome. The retrovirus may remain dominant for some length of time, it will eventually become active causing the host cell to make new viruses and death for the host cell.

Back

The Lysogenic Cycle

Front

1. the host cell makes copies of the viral genetic material indefinitely 2. the virus incorporates its DNA into DNA of the cell and the viral DNA is replicated along with the host cell's DNA. Lysogenic viruses do not kill the cell right away. it may remain active for some period of time.

Back

Human uses of bacteria

Front

food and beverages, sour cream, yogurt and cheese. some bacteria can digest oil and are helpful cleaning up oil spills

Back

Synthesis

Front

The host cell is directed to produce viral genomes and protein capsids.

Back

Vaccines

Front

battle against viral diseases and contain harmless variations of the pathogen

Back

Endospore

Front

when conditions for growth become unfavorable, many bacteria form structures called... it's formed inside of a cell, contents of the cytoplasm draw up together and a thick wall is formed. can survive extreme dryness (heat or cold)

Back

Bacteriophage T4

Front

an example of a bacteriophage that causes a lytic infection

Back

Prions

Front

disease-causing forms of proteins, cause brain diseases such as Mad Cow Disease. cannot replicate

Back

bacteriophages

Front

be sure to label the parts. except the neck. REMEMBER the capsid is from the top down to the sheath

Back

Bacteria

Front

prokaryote- does not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles. Outweighs all eukaryotes. some are harmful and cause diseases, but most are benign or beneficial. successful bc of their rapid cell division and great metabolic diversity, they double their #'s every 20 min. and live in environments that support no other forms of life.

Back

Prokaryotes

Front

were placed in a single kingdom called Monera until biologists recognized great differences between 2 distinct groups of prokaryotes and should be placed into separate domains. (Archaebacteria) (Eubacteria)

Back

Parasites

Front

live in or on other living organisms causing them harm

Back

virus are only active when

Front

inside a living cell, when taken out, it ceases all activities but remains its ability to infect the cell even after long periods of time

Back

DNA Viruses

Front

hepatitis, herpes infections- chicken pox, shingles, cold sores, genital herpes

Back

parasite

Front

An organism that invades plants and animals and feeds off them Host: what the parasite is living off of

Back

entry

Front

phage DNA is injected. empty capsid remains outside. host cell DNA is destroyed.

Back

Best Environment for Bacteria

Front

temps between 80-100*, moisture, suitable food source, darkness, space to grow

Back

Characteristics of viruses

Front

extremely small, most can only be seen through a electron microscope

Back

prokaryote shapes

Front

spheres (cocci), rod shaped (bacilli), and spirals (spirillia)

Back

Halophiles

Front

"salt-loving" archaea that live in environments that have very high salt concentrations

Back

Release

Front

the cell swells, bursts, and releases of new viruses.

Back

prokaryote movement

Front

some are motile and others don't move at all, some move by flagella- whiplike structures, some lash or snake forward, others glide slowly over a layer of slime they secrete

Back

Prokaryote characteristics

Front

shape, materials composing the cell wall, the way they move, the way they obtain energy

Back

Assembly

Front

The viral DNA or RNA is assembled inside the protein coat.

Back

Methanogens

Front

unique way of getting energy. converts hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide into methane gas, thrive in the digestive tracts of cows and termites

Back

3 archaeal groups

Front

Methanogens, Halophiles, Thermoacidophiles

Back

Decomposers

Front

depend on carbon, nitrogen, and other essential elements which are recycled by bacteria, when an organism dies bacteria attacks it and breaks it down into simpler materials

Back

attachment

Front

tail fibers are used to attach to receptor sites on the surface of the host cell.

Back

binary fission

Front

type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells

Back

Pathogens (bacteria)

Front

disease causing agents in 2 ways. some damage the cells and tissues by breaking down the cells for food. others release toxins or poisons in the body of the host.

Back

Prophage

Front

the viral DNA that is embedded in the host cell's DNA

Back

Retroviruses

Front

have RNA as their genetic information instead of DNA and are responsible for some cancers, AIDS is a...

Back

Viral Reproduction

Front

1. they make viral parts bc they don't have enzymes or cell parts 2. infection begins when the genetic material makes its way into a host cell 3. it takes over the cell and makes the cell produce viral parts 4. the cell produces viral DNA and protein capsids and assembles the parts into viruses and makes 100s or 1000s of them. 5. most of the time the host cell is destroyed and viruses infect other cells spreading the infection.

Back

Section 2

(2 cards)

Eubacteria

Front

true bacteria, found in every environment on earth, has a cell wall containing a Polysaccharide, harmless or beneficial

Back

Heterotrophs

Front

most bacteria, do not have the ability to make their own food, further divided into saprophytes and parasites

Back