Instrument theory- Flight Instruments

Instrument theory- Flight Instruments

memorize.ai (lvl 286)
Section 1

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As a rule of thumb, altitude corrections of less than 100 feet should be corrected by using a

Front

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Last updated

11 months ago

Date created

Mar 1, 2020

Cards (126)

Section 1

(50 cards)

As a rule of thumb, altitude corrections of less than 100 feet should be corrected by using a

Front

half bar width on the attitude indicator.

Back

If both the ram air input and drain hole of the pitot system are blocked, what airspeed indication can be expected?

Front

Increase of indicated airspeed during a climb.

Back

The glide slope and localizer are centered, but the airspeed is too fast. Which should be adjusted initially?

Front

Power only.

Back

If you are departing from an airport where you cannot obtain an altimeter setting, you should set your altimeter

Front

to the airport elevation.

Back

How can you determine the pressure altitude on an airport without a tower or FSS?

Front

Set the altimeter to 29.92" Hg and read the altitude indicated.

Back

What is the primary pitch instrument during a stabilized climbing left turn at cruise climb airspeed?

Front

Airspeed indicator.

Back

Altimeter setting is the value to which the scale of the pressure altimeter is set so the altimeter indicates

Front

true altitude at field elevation.

Back

What is the procedure for setting the altimeter when assigned an IFR altitude of 18,000 feet or higher on a direct flight off airways?

Front

Set the altimeter to the current reported setting for climb out and 29.92" Hg upon reaching 18,000 feet.

Back

What pretakeoff check should be made of the attitude indicator in preparation for an IFR flight?

Front

The horizon bar should erect and become stable within 5 minutes.

Back

As power is increased to enter a 500 feet per minute rate of climb in straight flight, which instruments are primary for pitch, bank, and power respectively?

Front

Attitude indicator, heading indicator, and manifold pressure gauge or tachometer.

Back

What are the three fundamental skills involved in attitude instrument flying?

Front

Cross-check, instrument interpretation, and aircraft control.

Back

The rate of descent on the glide slope is dependent upon

Front

ground speed.

Back

How does a pilot normally obtain the current altimeter setting during an IFR flight in Class E airspace below 18,000 feet?

Front

ATC periodically advises the pilot of the proper altimeter setting.

Back

The gyroscopic heading indicator is inoperative. What is the primary bank instrument in unaccelerated straight-and-level flight?

Front

Magnetic compass.

Back

Under what condition will true altitude be lower than indicated altitude with an altimeter setting of 29.92" Hg?

Front

In colder than standard air temperature.

Back

Which condition would cause the altimeter to indicate a lower altitude than actually flown (true altitude)?

Front

Air temperature warmer than standard.

Back

How can you obtain the pressure altitude on flights below 18,000 feet?

Front

Set your altimeter to 29.92" Hg.

Back

During a precision radar or ILS approach, the rate of descent required to remain on the glide slope will

Front

increase as the ground speed increases.

Back

Which altitude is indicated when the altimeter is set to 29.92" Hg?

Front

Pressure.

Back

En route at FL290, your altimeter is set correctly, but you fail to reset it to the local altimeter setting of 30.26" Hg during descent. If the field elevation is 134 feet and your altimeter is functioning properly, what will it indicate after landing?

Front

206 feet below MSL.

Back

During a skidding turn to the right, what is the relationship between the component of lift, centrifugal force, and load factor?

Front

Centrifugal force is greater than horizontal lift and the load factor is increased.

Back

The rate of turn at any airspeed is dependent upon

Front

the horizontal lift component.

Back

If both the ram air input and the drain hole of the pitot system are blocked, what reaction should you observe on the airspeed indicator when power is applied and a climb is initiated out of severe icing conditions?

Front

No change until an actual climb rate is established, then indicated airspeed will increase.

Back

While you are flying at FL250, you hear ATC give an altimeter setting of 28.92" Hg in your area. At what pressure altitude are you flying?

Front

25,000 feet.

Back

En route at FL290, the altimeter is set correctly, but not reset to the local altimeter setting of 30.57" Hg during descent. If the field elevation is 650 feet and the altimeter is functioning properly, what is the approximate indication upon landing?

Front

Sea level.

Back

What effect will a change in wind direction have upon maintaining a 3° glide slope at a constant true airspeed?

Front

When ground speed increases, rate of descent must increase.

Back

What indication should a pilot observe if an airspeed indicator ram air input and drain hole are blocked?

Front

The airspeed indicator will react as an altimeter.

Back

What is the correct sequence in which to use the three skills used in instrument flying?

Front

Cross-check, instrument interpretation, and aircraft control.

Back

Under what condition is pressure altitude and density altitude the same value?

Front

At standard temperature.

Back

Which condition during taxi is an indication that an attitude indicator is unreliable?

Front

The horizon bar tilts more than 5° while making taxi turns.

Back

To remain on the ILS glidepath, the rate of descent must be

Front

increased if the ground speed is increased.

Back

On the taxi check, the magnetic compass should

Front

swing freely and indicate known headings.

Back

What indication is presented by the miniature aircraft of the turn coordinator?

Front

Indirect indication of the bank attitude.

Back

When airspeed is decreased in a turn, what must be done to maintain level flight?

Front

Decrease the angle of bank and/or increase the angle of attack.

Back

How should you preflight check the altimeter prior to an IFR flight?

Front

Set the altimeter to the current altimeter setting. The indication should be within 75 feet of the actual elevation for acceptable accuracy.

Back

You check the flight instruments while taxiing and find that the vertical speed indicator (VSI) indicates a descent of 100 feet per minute. In this case, you

Front

may take off under IFR and use 100-foot descent as the zero indication.

Back

What indication should be observed on a turn coordinator during a left turn while taxiing?

Front

The miniature aircraft will show a turn to the left and the ball moves to the right.

Back

What is the primary bank instrument once a standard rate turn is established?

Front

Turn coordinator.

Back

What instruments are primary for pitch, bank, and power, respectively, when transitioning into a constant airspeed climb from straight-and-level flight?

Front

Attitude indicator, heading indicator, and manifold pressure gauge or tachometer.

Back

What is the initial primary bank instrument when establishing a level standard rate turn?

Front

Attitude indicator.

Back

When an altimeter is changed from 30.11" Hg to 29.96" Hg, in which direction will the indicated altitude change and by what value?

Front

Altimeter will indicate 150 feet lower.

Back

What instruments are considered supporting bank instruments during a straight, stabilized climb at a constant rate?

Front

Attitude indicator and turn coordinator.

Back

What does the miniature aircraft of the turn coordinator directly display?

Front

Rate of roll and rate of turn.

Back

As a rule of thumb, altitude corrections of less than 100 feet should be corrected by using

Front

less than a full bar width on the attitude indicator.

Back

Under which condition will pressure altitude be equal to true altitude?

Front

When standard atmospheric conditions exist.

Back

The rate of descent required to stay on the ILS glide slope

Front

must be decreased if the ground speed is decreased.

Back

What is the primary pitch instrument when establishing a constant altitude standard rate turn?

Front

Altimeter.

Back

What instrument(s) is(are) supporting bank instrument when entering a constant airspeed climb from straight-and-level flight?

Front

Attitude indicator and turn coordinator.

Back

Which of the following defines the type of altitude used when maintaining FL210?

Front

Pressure.

Back

What indications are displayed by the miniature aircraft of a turn coordinator?

Front

Rate of roll and rate of turn.

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

If a half-standard rate turn is maintained, how much time would be required to turn clockwise from a heading of 090° to a heading of 180°?

Front

1 minute.

Back

Conditions that determine the pitch attitude required to maintain level flight are

Front

airspeed, air density, wing design, and angle of attack.

Back

What pretakeoff check should be made of a vacuum-driven heading indicator in preparation for an IFR flight?

Front

After 5 minutes, set the indicator to the magnetic heading of the aircraft and check for proper alignment after taxi turns.

Back

What information does a Mach meter present?

Front

The ratio of aircraft true airspeed to the speed of sound.

Back

Which instruments, in addition to the attitude indicator, are pitch instruments?

Front

Altimeter, airspeed indicator, and vertical speed indicator.

Back

During normal operation of a vacuum-driven attitude indicator, what attitude indication should you see when rolling out from a 180° skidding turn to straight-and-level coordinated flight?

Front

The miniature aircraft shows a turn in the direction opposite the skid.

Back

If a half-standard rate turn is maintained, how long would it take to turn 135°?

Front

1 minute 30 seconds.

Back

What indications should you observe on the turn-and-slip indicator during taxi?

Front

The ball moves freely opposite the turn, and the needle deflects in the direction of the turn.

Back

When airspeed is increased in a turn, what must be done to maintain a constant altitude?

Front

Increase the angle of bank and/or decrease the angle of attack.

Back

What force causes an airplane to turn?

Front

Horizontal lift component.

Back

On what headings will the magnetic compass read most accurately during a level 360° turn, with a bank of approximately 15°?

Front

90° and 270°.

Back

If a standard rate turn is maintained, how much time would be required to turn to the right from a heading of 090° to a heading of 270°?

Front

1 minute.

Back

If a standard rate turn is maintained, how much time would be required to turn to the left from a heading of 090° to a heading of 300°?

Front

50 seconds.

Back

Which is the correct sequence for recovery from a spiraling, nose-low, increasing airspeed, unusual flight attitude?

Front

Reduce power, correct the bank attitude, and raise the nose to a level attitude.

Back

What should be the indication on the magnetic compass as you roll into a standard rate turn to the left from a west heading in the Northern Hemisphere?

Front

The compass will indicate the approximate correct magnetic heading if the roll into the turn is smooth.

Back

What is the third fundamental skill in attitude instrument flying?

Front

Aircraft control.

Back

Which instruments are considered primary and supporting for bank, respectively, when establishing a level standard rate turn?

Front

Attitude indicator and turn coordinator.

Back

Which instrument provides the most pertinent information (primary) for bank control in straight-and-level flight?

Front

Heading indicator.

Back

What is the first fundamental skill in attitude instrument flying?

Front

Instrument cross-check.

Back

Which instrument is considered primary for power as the airspeed reaches the desired value during change of airspeed in a level turn?

Front

Airspeed indicator.

Back

Which practical test should be made on the electric gyro instruments prior to starting an engine?

Front

Turn on the electrical power and listen for any unusual or irregular mechanical noise.

Back

What is the relationship between centrifugal force and the horizontal lift component in a coordinated turn?

Front

Horizontal lift and centrifugal force are equal.

Back

What is the primary bank instrument while transitioning from straight-and-level flight to a standard rate turn to the left?

Front

Attitude indicator.

Back

Errors in both pitch and bank indication on an attitude indicator are usually at a maximum as the aircraft rolls out of a

Front

180° turn.

Back

During standard-rate turns, which instrument is considered primary for bank?

Front

Turn and slip indicator or turn coordinator.

Back

What should be the indication on the magnetic compass as you roll into a standard rate turn to the left from a north heading in the Northern Hemisphere?

Front

The compass will initially indicate a turn to the right.

Back

One characteristic that a properly functioning gyro depends upon for operation is the

Front

resistance to deflection of the spinning wheel or disc.

Back

What causes the northerly turning error in a magnetic compass?

Front

The magnetic dip characteristic.

Back

Which instruments are considered to be supporting instruments for pitch during change of airspeed in a level turn?

Front

Attitude indicator and VSI.

Back

If a standard rate turn is maintained, how long would it take to turn 180°?

Front

1 minute.

Back

What should be the indication on the magnetic compass as you roll into a standard rate turn to the right from a south heading in the Northern Hemisphere?

Front

The compass will indicate a turn to the right, but at a faster rate than is actually occurring.

Back

If an airplane is in an unusual flight attitude and the attitude indicator has exceeded its limits, which instruments should be relied on to determine pitch attitude before starting recovery?

Front

Airspeed and altimeter.

Back

What should be the indication on the magnetic compass as you roll into a standard rate turn to the left from an east heading in the Northern Hemisphere?

Front

The compass will indicate the approximate correct magnetic heading if the roll into the turn is smooth.

Back

Which instrument indicates the quality of a turn?

Front

Ball of the turn coordinator.

Back

What should be the indication on the magnetic compass as you roll into a standard rate turn to the right from a northerly heading in the Northern Hemisphere?

Front

The compass will initially indicate a turn to the left.

Back

What would be the indication on the VSI during entry into a 500 FPM actual descent from level flight if the static ports were iced over?

Front

The VSI pointer would remain at zero regardless of the actual rate of descent.

Back

While recovering from an unusual flight attitude without the aid of the attitude indicator, approximate level pitch attitude is reached when the

Front

airspeed and altimeter stop their movement and the VSI reverses its trend.

Back

What should be the indication on the magnetic compass as you roll into a standard rate turn to the right from a westerly heading in the Northern Hemisphere?

Front

The compass will indicate the approximate correct magnetic heading if the roll into the turn is smooth.

Back

Which instrument provides the most pertinent information (primary) for pitch control in straight-and-level flight?

Front

Altimeter.

Back

What should be the indication on the magnetic compass when you roll into a standard rate turn to the left from a south heading in the Northern Hemisphere?

Front

The compass will indicate a turn to the left, but at a faster rate than is actually occurring.

Back

During a constant-bank level turn, what effect would an increase in airspeed have on the rate and radius of turn?

Front

Rate of turn would decrease, and radius of turn would increase.

Back

Which instruments should be used to make a pitch correction when you have deviated from your assigned altitude?

Front

Attitude indicator, altimeter, and VSI.

Back

What should be the indication on the magnetic compass as you roll into a standard rate turn to the right from an easterly heading in the Northern Hemisphere?

Front

The compass will indicate the approximate correct magnetic heading if the roll into the turn is smooth.

Back

Prior to starting an engine, you should check the turn-and-slip indicator to determine if the

Front

needle is approximately centered and the tube is full of fluid.

Back

If a 180° steep turn is made to the right and the aircraft is rolled out to straight-and-level flight by visual references, the attitude indicator

Front

may show a slight climb and turn.

Back

During normal coordinated turns, what error due to precession should you observe when rolling out to straight-and-level flight from a 180° steep turn to the right?

Front

The miniature aircraft would show a slight turn indication to the left.

Back

When airspeed is increased in a turn, what must be done to maintain a constant altitude?

Front

Increase the angle of bank and/or decrease the pitch attitude.

Back

As power is reduced to change airspeed from high to low cruise in level flight, which instruments are primary for pitch, bank, and power, respectively?

Front

Altimeter, heading indicator, and manifold pressure gauge or tachometer.

Back

If a half-standard rate turn is maintained, how long will it take to turn 360°?

Front

4 minutes.

Back

Approximately what percent of the indicated vertical speed should be used to determine the number of feet to lead the level-off from a climb to a specific altitude?

Front

10 percent.

Back

Section 3

(26 cards)

If the pitot tube ram air pressure hole and drain hole become obstructed, the airspeed indicator will operate

Front

like an altimeter as the aircraft climbs and descends.

Back

The primary reason the angle of attack must be increased, to maintain a constant altitude during a coordinated turn, is because the

Front

vertical component of lift has decreased as the result of the bank.

Back

Automation in aircraft has proven

Front

to present new hazards in its limitations.

Back

Pressure altitude is the altitude read on your altimeter when the instrument is adjusted to indicate height above

Front

the standard datum plane.

Back

Rate of turn can be increased and radius of turn decreased by

Front

decreasing airspeed and increasing the bank.

Back

The pressure altitude at a given location is indicated on the altimeter after the altimeter is set to

Front

29.92" Hg.

Back

To level off from a descent to a specific altitude, the pilot should lead the level-off by approximately

Front

10 percent of the vertical speed.

Back

During recoveries from unusual attitudes, level flight is attained the instant

Front

the altimeter and airspeed needles stop prior to reversing their direction of movement.

Back

If, while in level flight, it becomes necessary to use an alternate source of static pressure vented inside the airplane, which of the following should the pilot expect?

Front

The vertical speed to momentarily show a climb.

Back

The local altimeter setting should be used by all pilots in a particular area, primarily to provide for

Front

better vertical separation of aircraft.

Back

When an aircraft is accelerated, some attitude indicators will precess and incorrectly indicate a

Front

climb.

Back

What indication should be observed on a turn coordinator during a right turn while taxiing?

Front

The miniature aircraft will show a turn to the right and the ball moves to the left.

Back

For maintaining level flight at constant thrust, which instrument would be the least appropriate for determining the need for a pitch change?

Front

Attitude indicator.

Back

The displacement of a turn coordinator during a coordinated turn will

Front

increase as angle of bank increases.

Back

To level off from a descent maintaining the descending airspeed, the pilot should lead the desired altitude by approximately

Front

50 feet.

Back

At an altitude of 6,500 feet MSL, the current altimeter setting is 30.42" Hg. The pressure altitude would be approximately

Front

6,000 feet.

Back

If the outside air temperature increases during a flight at constant power and at a constant indicated altitude, the true airspeed will

Front

increase and true altitude will increase.

Back

While cruising at 190 knots, you wish to establish a climb at 160 knots. When entering the climb (full panel), it would be proper to make the initial pitch change by increasing back elevator pressure until the

Front

attitude indicator shows the approximate pitch attitude appropriate for the 160-knot climb.

Back

The lighter workloads associated with glass (digital) flight instrumentation

Front

may lead to complacency by the flightcrew.

Back

During flight, if the pitot tube becomes clogged with ice, which of the following instruments would be affected?

Front

The airspeed indicator only.

Back

When a pilot believes advanced avionics enable operations closer to personal or environmental limits,

Front

risk is increased.

Back

To level off at an airspeed higher than the descent speed, the addition of power should be made, assuming a 500 FPM rate of descent, at approximately

Front

100 to 150 feet above the desired altitude.

Back

While cruising at 160 knots, you wish to establish a climb at 130 knots. When entering the climb (full panel), it is proper to make the initial pitch change by increasing back elevator pressure until the

Front

attitude indicator shows the approximate pitch attitude appropriate for the 130-knot climb.

Back

If while in level flight, it becomes necessary to use an alternate source of static pressure vented inside the airplane, which of the following variations in instrument indications should the pilot expect?

Front

The altimeter will read higher than normal, airspeed greater than normal, and the VSI will momentarily show a climb.

Back

When an aircraft is decelerated, some attitude indicators will precess and incorrectly indicate a

Front

descent.

Back

To enter a constant-airspeed descent from level-cruising flight, and maintain cruising airspeed, the pilot should

Front

simultaneously reduce power and adjust the pitch using the attitude indicator as a reference to maintain the cruising airspeed.

Back