Review of Basic Biology & Chemistry

Review of Basic Biology & Chemistry

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Section 1

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Matter

Front

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Last updated

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Date created

Mar 14, 2020

Cards (83)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Matter

Front

Anything that takes up space and has mass

Back

Monosaccharide

Front

Single sugar molecule (glucose, fructose, galactose)

Back

Covalent Bond

Front

Chemical bond where two atoms share electrons

Back

Chitin

Front

Complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi

Back

Synthesis

Front

Process of producing a chemical compound (usually by the union of simpler chemical compounds)

Back

Fats

Front

Formed by dehydration synthesis from glycerol and 3 fatty acids; used for cellular energy, water retention, protection, insulation & stored energy

Back

Acid-Fast Bacteria

Front

Have waxy outer coating; example: Holly bush leaves

Back

1

Front

pH level of hydrochloric acid

Back

14

Front

pH level of sodium hydroxide

Back

Polysaccharide

Front

Long polymer chain made up of simple sugar monomers with glycosidic bonds

Back

Decomposition

Front

Process of breaking down bonds within larger molecules to form new products

Back

Disaccharide

Front

Sugar formed from two monosaccharides (sucrose, lactose)

Back

Acid

Front

Dissociates into H+ and anion(s)

Back

Molecules

Front

Made out of atoms

Back

Monomers

Front

Basic building blocks of macromolecules

Back

Carbohydrates

Front

Organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; energy source, building blocks (DNA/RNA), recognition molecules

Back

Compound

Front

A molecule composed of more than one element

Back

Phospholipids

Front

Formed with glycerol, phosphate and 2 fatty acids; tails are hydrophobic, head is hydrophilic; has a phospholipid bilayer

Back

11

Front

pH level of household ammonia

Back

Hydrolysis

Front

Process that breaks down polysaccharides

Back

Base

Front

Binds with H+ in water. sometimes after dissociating into cations and OH-

Back

Ionic Bond

Front

Bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another

Back

12

Front

pH level of household bleach

Back

Nucleus

Front

Contains neutrons and protons

Back

Neutrons

Front

Uncharged particles

Back

Hydrogen Bond

Front

Weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms to other negatively charged atoms

Back

13

Front

pH level of oven cleaner

Back

3

Front

pH level of beer, vinegar

Back

2

Front

pH level of lemon juice

Back

8

Front

pH level of sea water

Back

Protons

Front

Positively charged particles

Back

Atoms

Front

The smallest chemical units of matter

Back

0

Front

pH level of battery acid

Back

Polar

Front

Covalent bond where atoms share electrons unequally

Back

10

Front

pH level of milk of magnesia

Back

Cellulose

Front

Polysaccharide that is the mostly makes up plant and algal cell walls

Back

Waxes

Front

Contains one long-chain fatty acid covalently linked to long-chain alcohol

Back

Peptidoglycan

Front

Protein carbohydrate compound found in bacterial cell walls

Back

9

Front

pH level of baking soda

Back

Exchange

Front

Process of breaking and forming covalent bond; involves endothermic and exothermic steps

Back

Nonpolar

Front

Covalent bond where atoms share electrons equally

Back

Valence Electrons

Front

Electrons in the outer most shell that interact with other atoms

Back

7

Front

pH level of pure water, blood

Back

6

Front

pH level of urine, milk

Back

4

Front

pH level of wine, tomatoes

Back

Buffers

Front

Prevent drastic changes in internal pH

Back

Electrons

Front

Negatively charged subatomic particles circling a nucleus in electron shells

Back

Chemical Bonds

Front

Hold molecules together

Back

5

Front

pH level of black coffee

Back

Starch

Front

Polysaccharide made up of a chain of glucose molecules; food storage molecule for plants

Back

Section 2

(33 cards)

ATP

Front

Drives movement across membrane; activates proteins for muscle movement; produced by mitochondria

Back

tRNA

Front

Type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome

Back

rRNA

Front

Type of RNA that makes up part of the ribosome

Back

Anaphase

Front

Third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles

Back

Metaphase

Front

Second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell

Back

Endocytosis

Front

Process by which a cell takes in a substance by surrounding it with the cell membrane

Back

Protein Synthesis

Front

Production of proteins; Transcription, RNA processing and Translation

Back

Hypertonic

Front

When comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes

Back

Hypertonic

Front

When comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes

Back

Exocytosis

Front

Process by which a cell releases large amounts of material

Back

Phosphodiester Bond

Front

Bonds nucleotides to form nucleic acids

Back

Prophase

Front

The first stage of mitosis; centrioles separate

Back

A

Front

T pairs with

Back

Facilitated Diffusion

Front

Type of passive transport that is the movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels

Back

Selectively Permeable

Front

Property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot

Back

Nucleotides

Front

Monomer of nucleic acids

Back

C

Front

G pairs with

Back

Osmosis

Front

Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

Back

Antiparallel

Front

Describes the two parallel strands that go in opposite directions

Back

Passive Transport

Front

The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy

Back

Nucleic Acid

Front

Organic compound whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information

Back

RNA

Front

Helps form proteins

Back

Polypeptide (Protein)

Front

Polymer of amino acids

Back

Enzyme

Front

Protein that acts as a catalyst; lowers activation energy & increases rate of reaction

Back

Protein

Front

Macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes

Back

Telophase

Front

Final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes

Back

Phosphate, Sugar, Nitrogen Base

Front

3 Monomers of nucleic acids

Back

Isotonic

Front

Having the same or equal osmotic pressure

Back

Diffusion

Front

Type of passive transport by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated

Back

mRNA

Front

The template for protein synthesis

Back

Interphase

Front

Period of the cell cycle between cell divisions

Back

DNA

Front

Genetic material of all living organisms and of many viruses; carries instructions for synthesis of RNA and proteins

Back

Active Transport

Front

transport of a substance across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient (using energy)

Back