AP Biology Final Exam Review

AP Biology Final Exam Review

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Section 1

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bottleneck

Front

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Cards (44)

Section 1

(44 cards)

bottleneck

Front

Genetic drift resulting from the reduction of a population, typically by a natural disaster, such that the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population.

Back

support endosymbiotic theory

Front

mitochondria and chloroplast con divide by binary fission, have own ribosomes, and have their own DNA

Back

apoptosis

Front

The changes that occur within a cell as it undergoes programmed cell death, which is brought about by signals that trigger the activation of a cascade of suicide proteins in the cell destined to die.

Back

antibiotic resistance example of natural selection

Front

resistance arising when bacteria adapt to antibiotics and the adaptation becomes common in the bacterial population, rendering the antibiotics ineffective

Back

divergence

Front

moving or spreading apart or in different directions from a common point

Back

morphological species concept

Front

A definition of species in terms of measurable anatomical criteria.

Back

natural selection

Front

A process in nature in which organisms possessing certain genotypic characteristics that make them better adjusted to an environment tend to survive, reproduce, increase in number or frequency, and therefore, are able to transmit and perpetuate their essential genotypic qualities to succeeding generations.

Back

endosymbiotic theory

Front

a theory that some eukaryotic organelles, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts, originated as free-living prokaryotes that invaded primitive eukaryotic cells.

Back

2pq

Front

in Hardy-Weinberg represents frequency of heterozygotes

Back

mutualism

Front

A relationship between two species in which both species benefit

Back

You have sampled a population in which you know that the percentage of the homozygous recessive genotype (aa) is 36%. Using that 36%, calculate the frequency of the "A" allele.

Front

p = 0.4. The frequency is 40%

Back

p^2

Front

in Hardy-Weinberg represents frequency of homozygous dominants

Back

homeostasis

Front

A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level

Back

how enzymes work

Front

Enzymes increase the rate of reaction by lowering the activation energy barrier and allow molecules of relatively low energy to take part in reactions at body temperature

Back

homology

Front

Similarity in characteristics resulting from a shared ancestry.

Back

deforestation

Front

The removal of forest for various economic purposes

Back

founder effect

Front

Genetic drift that occurs after a small number of individuals colonize a new area

Back

In a certain population, the dominant phenotype of a certain trait occurs 91% of the time. What is the frequency of the dominant allele?

Front

p=0.7 The frequency is 70%

Back

chemiosmosis

Front

an energy coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as the synthesis of ATP

Back

common ancestor

Front

According to Darwin's theory of evolution: The shared ancestor of new, different species that arose from one population

Back

anabolic

Front

Metabolic pathways that consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones.

Back

activation energy

Front

The minimum amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction

Back

biological species concept

Front

a species concept defining a species as a population or group thereof whose members potentially interbreed and produce fertile offspring

Back

genetic variation

Front

variations of genomes between members of species, or between groups of species thriving in different parts of the world as a result of genetic mutation.

Back

photosynthesis

Front

the process that converts solar energy into chemical energy; converts light energy into the chemical energy of food

Back

sympatry

Front

Condition in which two or more populations live in the same geographic area, or close enough to permit interbreeding.

Back

mutation

Front

A change in the order of the bases in an organism's DNA; deletion, insertion, or substitution.

Back

enzymes

Front

Proteins that speed up chemical reactions

Back

electron transport chain

Front

a sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons down a series of redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP

Back

genetic drift

Front

A change in the allele frequency of a population as a result of chance events rather than natural selection.

Back

polymorphism

Front

2 or more versions of a trait are present for a species

Back

T-helper cells

Front

The middle-man or main "helper" of the immune response . These cells receive info from non-specific phagocytic cells and pass that info on to generate a specific response to a particular antigen. These are also called CD4 T-cells, dues to the presense of the CD4 marker. Help (in the adaptive immune system) activity of other immune cells by releasing T cell cytokines and help suppress or regulate immune responses.

Back

substrate-level phosphorylation

Front

The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.

Back

polyploidization

Front

Genetic mechanisms that result in offspring that differ from their parents by having different numbers of entire sets of chromosomes

Back

allopathy

Front

populations that are graphically separated

Back

vicariance

Front

Occurs when a physical barrier splits a widespread population into subgroups that are physically isolated from each other

Back

post zygotic isolation

Front

a type of reproductive isolation that occurs after two different species have mated and produced a hybrid offspring that usually cannot reproduce

Back

catabolic

Front

releases energy by breaking down large molecules into small ones

Back

restriction enzyme digestion

Front

Process or product of the use of restriction endonucleases on DNA molecules.

Back

ecological species concept

Front

concept that defines a species according to its ecological niche, how its members interact with nonliving and living parts of their environment

Back

ATP synthase

Front

a complex of several membrane proteins that functions in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains using the energy of a proton concentration gradient to make ATP

Back

q^2

Front

in Hardy-Weinberg represents frequency of homozygous recessives

Back

mimicry

Front

Gaining protection by looking and acting like a different species

Back

cancer

Front

A disease in which abnormal cells divide uncontrollably and destroy body tissue.

Back