AP Chemistry Big Idea #6

AP Chemistry Big Idea #6

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Section 1

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The greater the value of Kp, the ________ the extent of the dissociation of the acid and the _______ the acid

Front

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Mar 1, 2020

Cards (59)

Section 1

(50 cards)

The greater the value of Kp, the ________ the extent of the dissociation of the acid and the _______ the acid

Front

Greater Stronger

Back

HA

Front

Symbolization for a weak acid

Back

Amphoteric

Front

A substance that can function as an acid and a base.

Back

You can find the pH of a strong acid from its...

Front

Concentration

Back

Strong acids never reach ________. (2)

Front

Equilibrium There is no equilibrium constant

Back

Solubility Determination

Front

A salt can be considered soluble if more than 1 gram of the salt can be dissolved in 100 milliliters of water.

Back

Common way to cause a pressure shift on a reaction

Front

Change the volume of the container

Back

Le Chatelier's Principle

Front

States that if a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that relieves the stress.

Back

Diprotic Acid

Front

an acid that can donate two protons per molecule

Back

Buffers are made from...

Front

Salt Weak acid or base

Back

Arrhenius model

Front

States that an acid releases H+ ions and a base releases OH- ions

Back

For a polyprotic acid, the titration curve will have as many...

Front

Bumps as there are hydrogen ions to give up

Back

pH Scale

Front

measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14

Back

Ksp

Front

Solubility product

Back

Conjugate acid base pair

Front

consists of two substances related to each other by donating and accepting of a single hydrogen ion

Back

Acid Dissociation Constant

Front

An equilibrium expression used to measure weak-acid strength, given by the ratio of the product of the products' molar concentrations to the product of the reactants' molar concentrations, with each term raised to the power of its stoichiometric coefficient. Denoted Ka.

Back

At Equilibrium, DeltaG=

Front

0

Back

Bronsted-Lowry definition of a base

Front

Substance that is capable of accepting a proton

Back

If Q is less than K...

Front

The reaction shifts to the right

Back

Equilibrium Constant

Front

Ratio of concentrations of the products to the concentrations of the reactants at the point of equilibrium, where each reactant and product in the expression is raised to the power of its stoichiometric coefficient. Commonly denoted by Keq.

Back

A change in _______ will also affect the ________ _______ of the reaction.

Front

Temperature Equilibrium constant

Back

Lewis Acid

Front

An atom, ion, or molecule that accepts an electron pair to form a covalent bond.

Back

Q (2)

Front

Concentration or Pressure

Back

Bronsted Lowry Model

Front

an acid is a hydrogen-ion donor and a base is a hydrogen ion to a base

Back

Equilibrium Expression

Front

the expression obtained by multiplying the product concentrations and dividing by the multiplied reactant concentrations, with each concentration raised to a power represented by the coefficient in the balanced equation

Back

The acid with the most H+'s will give up H+ more easily, making it a _____ _____.

Front

Stronger Acid

Back

Oxyacid

Front

An acid that is a compound of hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element, usually a nonmetal

Back

When DeltaG is positive, K must be

Front

Less than 1 Reactants will be favored at equilibrium

Back

When solving for equilibrium, omit _______ and _______.

Front

Solids and liquids

Back

Reaction Quotient

Front

Ratio of the concentrations of the products to the concentrations of the reactants at any point during the reaction aside from equilibrium, where each reactant and product in the expression is raised to the power of its stoichiometric coefficient. Commonly denoted by Q.

Back

Half-Equivalence Point

Front

Enough base has been added to convert exactly half of the acid into conjugate base Concentration of acid is equal to the conjugate base (pH=pKa)

Back

Percent dissociation

Front

the ratio of the amount of a substance that is dissociated at equilibrium to the initial concentration of the substance in a solution, multiplied by 100

Back

You can only use ________ or _______ of reactions at ________ to calculate K.

Front

Concentrations Pressures Equilibrium

Back

Temperature and Equilibrium Constant Relationship

Front

Increasing temp decreases the value of the EC Causes there to be a larger amount of reactants at equilibrium than products Decreasing temp increased the value of the EC Causes there to be a larger amount of products at equilibrium than reactants

Back

Common Ion effect

Front

A weak acid and its conjugate base can remain in solution together without neutralizing each other

Back

Chemical Equilibrium

Front

In a chemical reaction, the state in which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction, so that the relative concentrations of the reactants and products do not change with time.

Back

Determining the equilibrium in a reaction when temperature is changed (2)

Front

1. Rewrite equation by adding heat to the correct side 2. If temp is increased, the reaction will shift away from the added energy. If the temp is decreased, the reaction will shift toward the added energy.

Back

When DeltaG is negative, K must be...

Front

Greater than 1 Products will be favored at equilibrium

Back

When the external pressure is decreased, the reaction will...

Front

Shift to the side with more gas molecules

Back

Law of Mass Action

Front

The rate of a chemical reaction is proportional to the product of the concentrations of the reactants

Back

Kp

Front

Partial Pressure constant

Back

Bronsted-Lowry definition of an acid

Front

Substance that is capable of donating a proton

Back

If Q=K...

Front

The reaction is at equilibrium

Back

Amphoteric

Front

Substance with the ability to act as a acid or base

Back

Equilibrium position

Front

The relative concentrations of reactants and products of a reaction that has reached equilibrium; indicates whether the reactants or products are favored in the reversible reaction

Back

If Q is greater than K...

Front

The reaction shifts to the left

Back

When external pressure is increased, the reaction will...

Front

Shift to the side with fewer gas molecules

Back

Common Amphoteric Molecules (3)

Front

H2PO4 HSO4 H2O

Back

If both sides of the reaction have an equal amount of moles of gas, then...

Front

Changing the pressure/volume has no effect on the reaction

Back

Polyprotic Acids

Front

Acids with more than one H+. (H2SO4, H3PO4, etc.)

Back

Section 2

(9 cards)

Solubility Product

Front

Product of the molar concentrations of dissociated ions in solution at saturation, where each ion is raised to the power of its stoichiometric coefficient. Denoted Ksp.

Back

Titration curve

Front

a graph of the pH of a solution as a function of the volume of the added titrant

Back

Buffering Capacity

Front

the ability of a buffered solution to absorb protons or hydroxide ions without a significant change in pH; determined by the magnitudes of [HA] and [A-] in the solution

Back

salt

Front

A compound resulting from the formation of an ionic bond; also called an ionic compound.

Back

Common Ion effect

Front

a decrease in the solubility of an ionic compound caused by the addition of a common ion

Back

Complex ion

Front

an ion having a structure in which a central atom or ion is bonded by coordinate covalent bonds to other ions or molecules

Back

Henderson Hasselbach Equation

Front

pH = pKa + log([A-]/[HA])

Back

Lewis Base

Front

Electron pair donor

Back

Buffered Solution

Front

a solution that resists a change in its Ph even when a strong acid or base is added to it

Back