Close Reading AP English Language (AP 3)

Close Reading AP English Language (AP 3)

memorize.aimemorize.ai (lvl 286)
Section 1

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Simile

Front

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Last updated

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Date created

Mar 14, 2020

Cards (124)

Section 1

(50 cards)

Simile

Front

figurative language comparing two unlike things using like or as

Back

Euphemism

Front

A mild word of phrase which substitutes for another which would be undesirable because it is too direct, unpleasant, or offensive

Back

DynamicCharacter

Front

character who changes

Back

Personification

Front

applying human attributes to something not human

Back

Protagonist

Front

the hero or main character

Back

Static character

Front

character who stays the same

Back

Epiphany

Front

sudden realization; the light bulb moment

Back

Foil

Front

character's opposite

Back

Post hoc, ergo propter hoc

Front

after this therefore because of this

Back

Colloquial

Front

informal spoken language or conversation

Back

Apostrophe

Front

addressing something as if they were present

Back

Dialect

Front

vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people

Back

Deductive reasoning

Front

Reasoning in which one tries to determine whether some statement follows logically from certain premises, as in the analysis of syllogisms. Whole to part logic.

Back

inductive reasoning

Front

reasoning in which one observes a number of particular instances and tries to determine a general rule that covers them all.

Back

Antagonist

Front

person who opposes the protagonist

Back

Synaesthesia

Front

describing one sense in terms of another.

Back

Denouement

Front

resolution

Back

Pathos

Front

appeal to emotion

Back

Slang

Front

non-standard use of words

Back

Invective

Front

abusive or venomous language used to express blame or censure or bitter deep-seated ill will

Back

Metaphor

Front

figurative language comparing two unlike things

Back

Alliteration

Front

repetition of the initial consonant sound

Back

Symbol

Front

something representing something else

Back

Archetype

Front

an original pattern or model from which all other things of the same kind are made

Back

Allusion

Front

reference to another lit. work or historic event

Back

Flat character

Front

character with no depth or complexity

Back

Detail

Front

details included for a purpose

Back

Inference

Front

opinion with evidence to support

Back

Tone

Front

speaker's attitude towards his subject

Back

Circular reasoning

Front

the practice of assuming something, in order to prove the very thing that you assumed

Back

Theme

Front

what an author believes to be true on a subject presented in the work.

Back

Vernacular

Front

characteristic language of a particular group

Back

Imagery

Front

words that appeal to the 5 senses

Back

Ethos

Front

appeal to ethics or credibility

Back

Ad populum fallacy

Front

the bandwagon fallacy; appealing to popularity

Back

Foreshadowing

Front

hints to what is to come

Back

Pun

Front

play on words

Back

Logos

Front

appeal to logic

Back

Idiom

Front

a manner of speaking that is natural to native speakers of a language

Back

Denotation

Front

dictionary definition

Back

Mood

Front

the feeling invoked in the reader

Back

Suspense

Front

building of tension

Back

Diction

Front

Word choice

Back

Motivation

Front

what drives a character on

Back

Propaganda

Front

information that is spread for the purpose of promoting some cause

Back

Round character

Front

character with depth and complexity

Back

Ad hominem fallacy

Front

Criticising a position by calling attention to irrelevant personal characteristics of someone who holds it

Back

Rhetorical Shift

Front

shift in attitude

Back

Connotation

Front

feeling word gives you

Back

Paradox

Front

a contradictory statement that turns out to be true

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

Epic

Front

long narrative poem which gives an account of a hero important to his nation or race.

Back

Parable

Front

A brief story, told or written in order to teach a moral lesson

Back

oxymoron

Front

a trope involving management of meaning in which two side by side words are direct opposites: icy hot; sweet tart

Back

Situational irony

Front

when the opposite happens from what you expect

Back

Parenthesis

Front

A scheme of interruption using insertion of material that interrupts the general flow of a sentence; examples are parentheses and dashes

Back

hyperbole

Front

a trope the exaggerates something for rhetorical effect

Back

Scheme

Front

any artful variation from the typical arrangement of words in a sentence

Back

Parallel Structure

Front

balance scheme with the same syntactical structure in a passage; words balance words, phrases balance phrases, clauses balance clauses

Back

Exposition

Front

Writing intended to explain the nature of an idea, thing, or theme. This type of writing is often combined with description, narration, or argument

Back

synecdoche

Front

a trope involving comparisons in which the part is used to represent the whole

Back

Prologue

Front

An introductory section of a literary work

Back

Tragedy

Front

drama in which something horrible happens at the end; duh

Back

Allegory

Front

A story illustrating an idea or a moral principle in which objects take on symbolic meanings.

Back

Diary

Front

journal or log

Back

Genre

Front

A category of literary work

Back

Hamartia

Front

In tragedy, the event or act that leads to the hero's or heroine's downfall

Back

Trope

Front

any artful variation from the typical or expected way a word or idea is expressed

Back

Anachronism

Front

out of place in time

Back

Fable

Front

a short moral story (often with animal characters)

Back

Hubris

Front

Excessive pride

Back

Comedy

Front

drama that is funny; duh

Back

Dramatic irony

Front

when the reader knows things the characters don't

Back

understatement

Front

a trope that under states something as being less important than it really is

Back

Novella

Front

A prose fiction longer than a short story but shorter than a novel

Back

Motif

Front

recurring idea

Back

Metonymy

Front

type of metaphor in which a word or phrase is substituted for something closely associated with it.

Back

Epigram

Front

a poem or quote at the beginning of a chapter

Back

Epistrophe

Front

a scheme of repetition that is the counterpart of anaphora, because the repetition of the same word or words comes at the end of successive phrases, clauses or sentences

Back

Anadiplosis

Front

a scheme of repetition repeating the last word of one phrase, clause, or sentence at or very near the beginning of the next

Back

In medias res

Front

beginning in the middle of the action (in the middle of things)

Back

Climax

Front

a scheme of repetition that repeats items in increasing order of importance

Back

Aphorism

Front

a short, witty saying, expressing a truth about life

Back

Subplot

Front

minor plot

Back

Indirect characterization

Front

personality traits about the character are implied through dialogue or actions.

Back

Prose

Front

not poetry

Back

Antithesis

Front

balance scheme using opposites or contrasts

Back

Epilogue

Front

A concluding statement or section of a literary work

Back

Monologue

Front

an excessive speech by one speaker in drama

Back

Direct characterization

Front

something about the character is stated directly

Back

Dialogue

Front

when 2 people are speaking to each other

Back

litotes

Front

a trope that is a type of understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by the negative of its contrary

Back

Polysyndeton

Front

a scheme of repetition using unnecessary conjunctions

Back

Dues ex machine

Front

god from a machine

Back

Verbal irony (sarcasm)

Front

saying one thing and meaning another

Back

Essay

Front

a short work that treats of a topic from an author's personal point of view, often taking into account subjective experiences and personal reflections upon them

Back

Epanalepsis

Front

a scheme of repetition in which a word or phrase is repeated after intervening matter

Back

Tragic Flaw

Front

the flaw that leads to the hero's downfall

Back

Satire

Front

Satire is a literary technique of writing or art which principally ridicules its subject (individuals, organizations, states) often as an intended means of provoking or preventing change

Back

Anecdote

Front

short account of an incident

Back

anthimeria

Front

a trope involving word play in which one part of speech (usually a verb) substitutes for another part of speech (usually a noun)

Back

Section 3

(24 cards)

Epitaph

Front

an inscription on a gravestone or a commemorative poem written as if it were for that purpose.

Back

false dilemma

Front

either/or reasoning. Either X or Y, and nothing in between or no other alternatives. (ie: You are either supportive of the war in Iraq or you love terrorists).

Back

Inconsistency

Front

accepting a conclusion of an argument that has self-contradictory statements or statements that contradict one another. (ie: Al Gore's stance on energy conservation when his house uses tons of electricity).

Back

Non-Sequitur

Front

it does not logically follow. Some use irrelevant reason to refer to reasons or premises that are irrelevant to a conclusion when the error doesn't fit a narrower fallacy category.

Back

slippery slope

Front

an action is objected to on the grounds that once it is taken, another, and then still another are bound to be taken, down a "slippery slope" until some undesirable consequence results. Arguing that a slope is slippery without providing good reason for thinking that it is, or when the slope clearly is NOT, makes us guilty of the slippery slope fallacy. (for example, a Canadian style "single Payer" health care system is often objected to because people believe it will lead us down a path to socialized EVERYTHING. NOTE: not all of these are fallacies. It is only a fallacy when we accept without further justification or argument that once the first step is taken, the others are going to follow, or that whatever would justify the first step will justify the rest.

Back

Appeal to Ignorance

Front

when we want to believe something, it's tempting to take the absence of evidence, and thus the absence of refutation, as justification for believing that it's true (taking the absence of evidence of P to show that not-P is true). Ie: "Do you have your mom's permission to go to the party?" Your reply: "she didn't tell me I couldn't come." In actuality, you never asked her about it, so of course she didn't say you couldn't come. (McCarthyism example: Joseph McCarthy saying that people were communists b/c he found nothing in their files to disprove communist connections).

Back

two wrongs make a right

Front

traditional name is tu quoque, meaning "you're another." Justifying a vengeful retaliation in sports falls into this category. Another example is the ballot irregularities in Florida. In 2000, voters voted for two candidates for the same office, thus invalidating their ballots. Dems said this stemmed from an illegally designed ballot, thwarting votor intent. Republicans dismissed this claim because the same issue happened in 1996, and they didn't cause an uproar. BUT, having the problem in 1996 doesn't justify having it in the year 2000. Under this category: fighting fire with fire, common practice, and traditional wisdom

Back

counterargument

Front

A challenge to a position; an opposing argument.

Back

questionable premise

Front

accepting a premise that is less than believable. (ie: you should drink Bud b/c it's the BEST!). I don't know that it IS the best, and even if it were, is that the criterion I want to use. What if I can't or don't want to pay for that, and I instead need to buy Milwaukee's Best.

Back

Composition Fallacy

Front

sometimes called the "salesman" fallacy; it's committed when someone assumes that a particular item must have a certain property because all of its parts have the same property. Ie: auto dealers try to get prospective customers to fall for this fallacy by touting low monthly payments while neglecting total costs ("...and this can be yours for only $400 a month" or "for only 35 cents a day, you can get this extended warranty..."). The fallacy of division is the opposite or mirror image of the composition fallacy, when you assume that all or some of the parts of an item have a particular property because the item as a whole has it. Ie: people think that a large, fancy hotel must have large, fancy rooms, when the rooms could actually be quite tiny.

Back

Appeal to Authority

Front

accepting the word of alleged authorities when (1) there is not sufficient reason to believe that they have the info. we seek, or (2) that they can be trusted to provide that information. (ie: power plant executives saying nuclear power is safe).

Back

suppressed evidence

Front

MAJOR PROBLEM FOR STUDENTS!!!!! Failing to being relevant evidence to bear on an argument. May only present one side, but fail to mention other relevant aspects of the argument. Students tend to list reasons for their position without any sort of COUNTERARGUMENT. It makes your argument weak.

Back

juxtaposition

Front

placing two things side by side for effect

Back

Common Practice

Front

when a wrong is justified on the grounds that LOTS of other people do the same thing. Ie: Barry Bonds and Mark McGwire HAD to take steroids to stay competitive because lots of other players were using them. (under Two Wrongs category)

Back

rhetorical fragment

Front

fragment for rhetorical purpose

Back

straw man

Front

misrepresenting an opponent's position or a competitor's product to make it easier to attack and defeat them. (ie: ads saying McCain voted to use unborn babies in medical research, OR ads saying Obama wanted to teach comprehensive sex education to kindergartners

Back

tokenism

Front

a token gesture instead of a real thing. (ie: Campaign promises or acts right before an election).

Back

catharsis

Front

Emotional release

Back

fallacy

Front

faulty reasoning; flawed logic

Back

Fighting fire with fire

Front

when we feel justified in fighting one evil with another one. This isn't always a fallacy; sometimes fighting fire with fire IS justified—like killing in self-defense (either kill or be killed). Retributivists believe we ARE justified in punishing those guilty of unfairly harming others even though in doing so we fail to fight the original harm (someone murdered someone or stole from someone, and we put that person in jail. It doesn't counter-act the crime, but it punishes the offender). The Two Wrongs fallacy sometimes seems plausible for another reason: to counter-act hypocrisy. For example a cheating husband won't get much sympathy when he complains of his wife's infidelity or an alcoholic calling out someone for being drunk won't really work. (under Two Wrongs category)

Back

Equivocation

Front

accepting a fallacy to be true b/c we are fooled by equivocating language (or ambiguous language) since it's open to interpretation. In everyday life, the term equivocation often connotes the use of equivocation to deceive. However, that's not always the case. It can be used as a metaphor, in literature, in music, etc.

Back

red herring

Front

A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion

Back

traditional wisdom

Front

when a wrong or an unsuitable practice is justified on grounds that it follows a traditional accepted way of doing things. It is difficult for some people to change because change brings risks, inevitably. (ie: not wanting to eliminate biased practices based on gender, racial, or religious biases because that's the way things have ALWAYS been done in the "good ole days."). Those who benefit from these practices find it hard to entertain the idea that there could possibly be anything wrong with them. We do want to learn from past experiences, so we shouldn't assume that just because things have been done in the past, that it is right to do that thing NOW. All innovations go against past practices (From the introduction of plows that dig deeper furrows (a practice resisted at first by the North African farmers) to the elimination of practices based on racial, religious, or gender bias in the US). Tradition should be a guide not a jailer. Jeremy Bentham once said that when someone is guilty of abuse of power, the ONLY way for them to defend that abuse is to use a fallacy. Therefore it is important for them to keep the people stupid so that they can't distinguish truth from error.(under Two Wrongs category)

Back

begging the question

Front

assuming without offering proof the question or part of the question OR answering a question by rephrasing it (ie: The reason the club is in such high demand is that everyone wants to join! OR Abortion is wrong because it takes a life—fails to define LIFE)

Back