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What type of test is used to analyze nominal vs. nominal data?

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Last updated

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Date created

Mar 1, 2020

Cards (150)

Section 1

(50 cards)

What type of test is used to analyze nominal vs. nominal data?

Front

Chi-squared

Back

What does "r" measure?

Front

The nature and strength of a correlation

Back

What test is used to analyze dependent interval/ratio vs. independent nominal (2 groups)?

Front

T-test

Back

What type of test is used to analyze ordinal vs. ordinal data?

Front

Spearman rho

Back

What is the r value of a strong correlation?

Front

0.75<r<1

Back

What coefficient is used to assess the strength of a correlation?

Front

r

Back

Why is knowing the level of measurement important?

Front

Helps to determine which test should be used and can help interpret data

Back

What are insurer perspectives of econ?

Front

Covered entities

Back

What is a correlation?

Front

A relationship between two continuous variables

Back

What are the four scales of measurement?

Front

Nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio

Back

What is value?

Front

Quality/Cost

Back

What test would be used to analyze the effect of gender on blood pressure?

Front

T-test

Back

What is Spearman's correlation?

Front

The correlation of data that is ranked (either ordinal v ordinal or interval v ordinal)

Back

What does correlation imply?

Front

A relationship between two variables, NOT causation

Back

What is the r value for a weak correlation?

Front

0<r<0.25

Back

What is the correlation between antiretroviral adherence and risk of mutation?

Front

Bell-curved (cannot use r)

Back

What type of data is ANOVA used for?

Front

Interval/ratio (dependent) vs. >2 groups of nominal data (independent)

Back

What type of test is used to analyze ordinal vs. nominal data?

Front

Mann Whitney U

Back

What is pharmacoeconomics?

Front

The study of deciding what drugs are provided how and for whom

Back

What kind of data is Chi-squared used for?

Front

Nominal vs. nominal

Back

What are the three types of economic outcomes?

Front

Direct, indirect, and intangible

Back

What is the limitation of using r as an approximation of correlation?

Front

Only works with linear relationships

Back

What is the range of "r"?

Front

-1 to 1

Back

What type of data is a t-test used for?

Front

Interval ratio (dependent) vs. 2 groups of nominal data (independent)

Back

What does an r value of 0 mean?

Front

No correlation at all

Back

What does an r value of 0.75<r<1 mean?

Front

Strong correlation

Back

What is the r value of an intermediate correlation?

Front

0.25<r<0.75

Back

What are the two types of clinical outcomes?

Front

Intermediate, distal

Back

What is economics?

Front

The science of how people make choices regarding the allocation of scarce resources

Back

What type of test is used to analyze interval/ratio vs. interval/ratio?

Front

Pearson's r

Back

What is interval/ratio data?

Front

Data that allows for the identification of absolute differences between each point on a scale (age, weight)

Back

What are the three types of humanistic outcomes?

Front

Quality of life, satisfaction

Back

What is is ascending level of measurement?

Front

Nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio (NOIR)

Back

What type of data is Spearman rho used for?

Front

Ordinal vs ordinal

Back

What is a scatter plot?

Front

A rectangular coordinate where continuous data plots can be made

Back

What test would be used to analyze the effect of age on blood pressure?

Front

Pearson correlation

Back

What test is used to analyze interval/ratio (dependent) vs. >2 groups of nominal data (independent)

Front

ANOVA

Back

What type of data is Pearson's r used for?

Front

Interval ratio vs interval ratio

Back

What are patient perspectives of econ?

Front

Out of pocket medical expenses, time and transportation cost, lost productivity and caregiving expenses

Back

What are ordinal scales?

Front

Allow the respondent to express a relative magnitude between the raw responses to a question (Likert scales)

Back

What does an r value of 0.25<r<0.75 mean?

Front

Intermediate correlation

Back

What are societal perspectives of econ?

Front

Medical care costs, patient time and transportation costs, lost productivity, caregiving expenses

Back

What can be used to assess the legitimacy of an r value?

Front

P value of <0.05

Back

What does an r value of 0<r<0.25 mean?

Front

Weak correlation

Back

What type of data is Mann-whitney U used for?

Front

Ordinal vs. nominal

Back

What does the value of "r" denote?

Front

The strength of an association

Back

What does SPC stand for in pharmacoecon?

Front

Structure -> Process -> Outcomes

Back

What are nominal scales?

Front

Data that requires the respondent to provide some type of descriptor as the response (marital status, gender, etc)

Back

What does the sign of "r" denote?

Front

The nature of the association (upward or downward)

Back

In what three scenarios can Spearman's correlation be used?

Front

Both variables are continuous (just use Pearson's), both variables are ordinal, one variable is interval and one is ordinal

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

When is a CEA used over a CBA or CMA?

Front

When outcomes and costs differ

Back

What is an indirect cost?

Front

A cost that does not involve the transfer of money, loss of time from work

Back

What are the five types of pharmacoecon analysis?

Front

Cost - of illness, minimization, benefit, effectiveness, utility

Back

How is a CEA expressed?

Front

Dollars per change in outcome (either clinical or humanistic)

Back

What is a direct cost?

Front

Medical or non medical transfer of money

Back

What are the six steps in a decision analysis?

Front

Identify decision, specify alternatives, specify outcomes and probabilities, draw tree, perform calculations, conduct sensitivity analysis

Back

What is the goal of a ICER?

Front

To have the lowest ratio possible

Back

What is cost-effectiveness?

Front

Achieving a desired outcome while optimizing a resource

Back

What can regression do in terms of data?

Front

Try to predict values of one variable given another variable

Back

What is the formula for logistic regression?

Front

P(y/x) = (e^a+bx)/(1-e^a+bx)

Back

What is CEA?

Front

Cost effectiveness analysis, a way of quantifying a benefit in dollars if CBA not feasible or not needed, assess "bang for buck", find the most efficient therapy

Back

What are the two types of outcomes that are analyzed in a CEA?

Front

Clinical or humanistic

Back

What is sensitivity analysis?

Front

A way to see if a CEA is responsive to certain changes, such as treatment efficacy rates, discount rates, or cost estimates

Back

What is the equation for CUA?

Front

Cost/ (QALY x life years gained)

Back

What is logistic regression most commonly used for?

Front

Predicting the probability of a dichotomous outcome from occurring

Back

When is it appropriate to do a CUA?

Front

When quality of life is important, when both morbidity and mortality is affected, when a wide variety of variables are in play, and when results of other CUAs need to be compared

Back

When should CMA be used?

Front

If outcomes are the same (considering side effects, efficacy), CMA is easily interpretable, is done beyond just the price

Back

How is regression calculated?

Front

By taking the sums least squares and finding the best fit line for a certain set of data

Back

What is beta in multiple regression?

Front

Slope

Back

What are the three types of outcomes?

Front

Economic, clinical, humanistic

Back

What is CMA?

Front

Cost minimization analysis, trying to find the cheapest therapy that will provide the same benefit

Back

What is a residual?

Front

The difference between the point on the regression and the actual point

Back

When is doing a CEA relevant?

Front

When the new therapy is more effective and more expensive or less effective but less expensive

Back

What assumption must be made when doing a CMA?

Front

Outcomes are the same or very similar

Back

What is the formula for CER?

Front

(Cost of new tx - cost of standard tx)/(effectiveness of new tx - effectiveness of standard tx)

Back

What is an intangible cost?

Front

Pain and suffering

Back

What is CBA?

Front

Cost benefit analysis, a straightforward method to evaluate the costs and benefits of interventions

Back

What is the equation for sums of squares?

Front

Sigma(y - y[hat])^2

Back

What is a QALY?

Front

Quality-adjusted life year, a way of analyzing both quantity and quality of life in regards to health outcomes

Back

What is the range of an HRQoL?

Front

0 (death) to 1 (perfect health)

Back

What is the generally accepted annual discount rate?

Front

3%/year (e.g. $1 today = $0.97 next year)

Back

What is logistic regression?

Front

A way of analyzing dichotomous variables to another variable

Back

What type of analysis will analyze "bang for buck" of various interventions?

Front

Cost effectiveness analysis

Back

What is regression?

Front

Drawing the line of best fit through a scatterplot

Back

What is a discount?

Front

Time preference of value, the belief that future dollars are worth less than current dollars

Back

What is the importance of a timeframe in pharmacoecon?

Front

Costs and outcomes may be different in the future, analysis must be done to take this into consideration

Back

Why is multiple regression often a better model than linear regression?

Front

Most dependent variables are affected by more than one independent variables

Back

What is a HRQoL?

Front

Utility of health-related quality of life, allows patients to define their perceptions of health

Back

What is utility?

Front

The value or worth placed on health status

Back

What is measured in a CUA?

Front

Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)

Back

What is ICER?

Front

Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, a way to compare costs and benefits of competing therapies in a single summary measure

Back

What is the goal in a CBA?

Front

Cost ratio >1

Back

What is the type of result in a CEA?

Front

Uni-dimensional outcome (e.g. life years saved, cases cured, % reduction of lipids

Back

What is the effect of adding a new X variable to R in multiple regression?

Front

Never decreases - usually fits better

Back

What is CER?

Front

Cost-effectiveness ratio, a way of measuring the incremental benefit of a therapy

Back

What is a dichotomous outcome?

Front

An outcome with two options (yes/no)

Back

What is a decision tree?

Front

A tool that can be used to make a decision in pharmacoeconomics or other fields, graphically displays options

Back

What is measured in a CBA?

Front

Benefits and costs in terms of dollars, even if it's not a direct cost (eg days at work, costs avoided)

Back

What is multiple regression?

Front

The analysis of more than one variable for a relationship

Back

What is CUA?

Front

Cost utilization analysis, a type of CEA that measures the quality of life

Back

Section 3

(50 cards)

What is beta in logistic regression?

Front

An increase in the log of odds for a one unit increase in X

Back

What does PICO stand for?

Front

Population, intervention, comparator, outcome

Back

What is the Cochrane collaboration?

Front

An international nonprofit that lists and prepares systematic reviews

Back

What is the Kaplan Meier Method?

Front

Compares the survival of 2 groups in survival analysis, uses a stair-step curve

Back

What is the rationale for doing a meta-analysis?

Front

Increased sample size, power, and precision of treatment effect

Back

What is survival analysis?

Front

The statistical methods for analyzing longitudinal data of survival, such as death over time, onset of illness over time, etc

Back

What are the results of a meta-analysis displayed as?

Front

Forest plot

Back

What are the five steps of systematic review?

Front

State objectives, search literature, apply eligibility criteria, analyze data, report results

Back

What are the two stages of meta-analysis?

Front

Calculate measure of treatment effect (odds ratio or risk reduction), calculate treatment effect

Back

How is survival analysis plotted?

Front

S(t), cumulative incidence which ranges from 0 to 100%

Back

What is the relationship between survival and hazard functions?

Front

Mathematically related - survival goes down, hazard goes up (usually)

Back

What are the two common ways of analyzing survival analysis?

Front

Kaplan Meier and Cox proportional hazard

Back

What scale is used to assess systematic review quality?

Front

Jadad scale (0-5)

Back

What is recidivism?

Front

The act of a person repeating an undesirable behavior (common in substance abuse and crime)

Back

What are the eligibility criteria in systematic reviews?

Front

Studies, not patients

Back

What is a meta-analysis?

Front

Data from individual studies that are pooled quantitatively and reanalyzed

Back

What are cox models typically used for?

Front

Multivariable surival analysis

Back

What is the relationship between systematic review and meta-analysis?

Front

Systematic review is the step by step process of data analysis, meta-analysis is the summarized data

Back

What is the most popular method of analyzing Kaplan-Meier data?

Front

Log-rank test

Back

What is the best way of abstracting the systematic review search?

Front

Using 2 or more independent blinded reviewers to assess trials, resolve discrepancies between reviewers

Back

What type of analysis is best to analyze a Kaplan-Meier if survival time in the earlier part of the study is important?

Front

Peto test (best if mortality is high)

Back

How should the validity of a meta analysis be assessed?

Front

Do not assume validity, determine validity of methodology, magnitude of treatment effect, applicability of results to population

Back

What is censoring?

Front

Subjects that are lost to follow up or that drop out of a study, or if the study ends before they die or have an outcome of interest

Back

What should the search strategy be like in systematic review?

Front

Identify key terms for PICO elements, think of misspellings or synonyms, search for everything individually and then link those searches

Back

What is adjusted odds ratio?

Front

An output of a logistic regression that adjusts for other factors

Back

What is a hazard function?

Front

The continuous increase in incidence compared to an independent variable

Back

What is the I^2 stat?

Front

% variation caused by heterogeneity (0-1, >0.5 is very large)

Back

How should the search strategy of a systematic review be analyzed?

Front

Search for published and unpublished trials, avoids biases,

Back

What are the advantages of a Logit?

Front

Makes logistic regression linear, makes the probability scale -infinity to infinity

Back

What are limitations of Kaplan-Meier curves?

Front

Survival analysis becomes unreliable with fewer patients, more than 2 groups becomes difficult, need another approach for >3 variables

Back

What is beta in multiple logistic regression?

Front

Increase in log odds for a one unit increase in xi with all other xis constant

Back

If confounders exist in a logistic regression equation, what can be done to reduce their effect?

Front

Multiple logistic regression

Back

What are the strengths of a logistic model?

Front

Ability to calculate odds ratios that are adjusted for other variables

Back

What is Cochran's Q stat?

Front

Looking at the significance of review heterogeneity

Back

What is PRISMA?

Front

Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, a 27-item checklist to assess content of SR and MA

Back

What are the goals of survival analysis?

Front

Estimate time-to-event for a group, compare time-to-event between two groups, assess the relationship of co-variables to time-to-event

Back

What is the equation for calculating odds ratio from beta?

Front

LR = e^Beta

Back

What is time-to-event?

Front

The time from entry into a study until a subject has a particular outcome

Back

What does the slope of a survival curve show?

Front

How fast survival changes and how high mortality will be

Back

How are systematic review search results analyzed?

Front

Organize them by sample size and outcomes per interest group, assess for randomization, bias, blinding, type of analysis, and excluded poor trials according to criteria

Back

What is Cox Proportional Hazards?

Front

Compares the relationship between the hazard rate and an IV

Back

What is the result of a cox analysis?

Front

Hazard ratio

Back

What is a systematic review?

Front

Form of research that provides a summary of trials on a specific clinical question, using an explicit protocol

Back

What is beta related to in logistic regression?

Front

Increase in probability of outcomes associated with a risk factor

Back

What is the kappa stat in systematic review?

Front

The level of agreement between reviewers, ranges from 0 to 1

Back

What is the LOGIT?

Front

Another term for logistic transformation, converts logistic regression to a line

Back

Who decides whether meta-analysis are generalizable?

Front

The practitioner

Back

Can logistic regression be used for ordinal variables?

Front

No, difference between variables is not the same

Back

What is logistic transformation?

Front

Dependent variable in a logistic model is the log of the odds

Back

How should the literature be reviewed in systematic reviews?

Front

Search everywhere, not just PubMed or EMBASE, contact authors and manufacturers to try to find failed studies too

Back