AP Human Geography Review

AP Human Geography Review

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Section 1

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environmental geography

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Cards (471)

Section 1

(50 cards)

environmental geography

Front

The intersection between human and physical geography, which explores the spatial impacts humans have on the physical environment and vice versa.

Back

location

Front

The position of anything on Earth's surface.

Back

physical site characteristic

Front

A location that includes climate, topography, soil, water sources, vegetation, and elevation.

Back

linear pattern

Front

when the pattern in along straight lines, like rivers, streets, or railroad tracks.

Back

multi-national corporations

Front

An example of economic globalization in which the business has centers of operation in many parts of the globe.

Back

George Perkins Marsh

Front

An inventor, diplomat, politician, and scholar, his classic work, "Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action," provided the first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions.

Back

random pattern

Front

a pattern that exists if no regular distribution can be seen

Back

Mercator projection

Front

a map projection of the earth onto a cylinder

Back

cartography

Front

science or art of making maps

Back

globalization

Front

Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.

Back

landscapes

Front

The overall appearance of an area that is shaped by both human and natural influences

Back

GIS

Front

Geographic Information System; a computer system that captures, stores, analyzes, and displays data.

Back

Peters Projection

Front

An equal-area projection purposely centered on Africa in an attempt to treat all regions of Earth equally.

Back

physical geography

Front

one of the two major divisions of systematic geography; the spatial analysis of the structure, processes, and location of the Earth's natural phenomena such as climate, soil, plants, animals, and topography.

Back

Carl Sauer

Front

early 20th century geographer from California, shaped the field of Human Geography by arguing that cultural landscapes (products of interactions between humans and their environments) should be the main focus of geographic study. His study is basic to environmental geography, a field that centers on the interaction of human and physical geography.

Back

circular pattern

Front

Objects that circle another object, another name for it is Centralized Pattern; For example, in an Islamic city, houses and public buildings may circle around the mosque, or house of worship.

Back

distortion

Front

a change in the shape, size, or position of a place when it is shown on a map

Back

Ptolemy

Front

a Greek scholar who lived five hundred years later than Eratosthenes, recalculated the circumference of the earth to be much smaller - by about 9000 miles. He was wrong, but his mistake was taken as truth for hundreds of years. Despite his famous miscalculations, his Guide to Geography included many rough maps of landmasses and bodies of water, and he developed a global grid system that was a forerunner to our modern system of latitude and longitude.

Back

pattern

Front

the arrangement of objects on earth's surface in relation to other objects

Back

space

Front

the physical gap or distance between two objects

Back

equator

Front

an imaginary line drawn around the earth equally distant from both poles, dividing the earth into northern and southern hemispheres and constituting the parallel of latitude 0°.

Back

Greenwich Mean Time

Front

The time in that time zone ecompassing the Prime Meridian, or 0 degrees longitude

Back

Idrisi

Front

An 11th century Arab geographer that worked for the king of Sicily to collect geographical information into a remarkably accurate representation of the world. Under his direction, an academy of geographers gathered maps and went out on their own scientific expeditions.

Back

place

Front

A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character.

Back

Hecataeus

Front

Lived in the late 6th and early 5th centuries B.E.C., a Greek scientist, he wrote a book about geography and illustrated a map of the countries and inhabitants of the known world.

Back

Robinson projection

Front

Projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. It does not maintain completely accurate area, shape, distance, or direction, but it minimizes errors in each.

Back

latitude

Front

The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator.

Back

Eratosthenes

Front

The head librarian at Alexandria during the third century B.C.; he was one of the first cartographers. Performed a remarkably accurate computation of the earth's circumference. He is also credited with coining the term "geography."

Back

Immanuel Kant

Front

German philosopher and geographer in the 1700s that defined geography as the study of interrelated spatial patterns.

Back

daylight savings time

Front

the practice of temporarily advancing clocks during the summertime so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less

Back

site

Front

the physical and human-transformed characteristics of a place

Back

GPS

Front

Global Positioning System; uses a system of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers to determine precise absolute locations on earth.

Back

scale

Front

The ratio between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of that same area on the earth's surface.

Back

perceptual (vernacular) regions

Front

places that people believe to exist as a part of their cultural identity

Back

regionalization

Front

the organization of earth's surface into distinct areas that are viewed as different from other areas

Back

periphery

Front

the outer boundary of a region; Countries that usually have low levels of economic productivity, low per capita incomes, and generally low standards of living. The world economic periphery includes Africa (except for South Africa), parts of South America, and Asia.

Back

cultural landscapes

Front

The products of complex interactions between humans and their environments.

Back

functional (nodal) regions

Front

areas organized around cores, or nodes

Back

grid pattern

Front

Also called a rectilinear pattern, reflects a rectangular system of land survey adopted in much of the country under the Ordinance of 1785. Streets form grids and are sometimes labeled "1st", "2nd", "3rd" streets and so on.

Back

local time

Front

The standard time in the region that a person lives in

Back

longitude

Front

The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian (0°).

Back

meridian

Front

an arc drawn between North and South poles that measures longitude

Back

absolute location

Front

The exact position of an object or place, measured within the spatial coordinates of a grid system.

Back

formal regions

Front

Also called uniform regions, an area that has striking similarities in terms of one or a few physical or cultural features.

Back

parallel

Front

A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians.

Back

situation

Front

characteristic that refers to relative location

Back

human geography

Front

a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape human interaction with the built environment, with particular reference to the causes and consequences of the spatial distribution of human activity on the Earth's surface

Back

solar time

Front

based on the position of the sun in the sky as the day progresses

Back

prime meridian

Front

The meridian, designated at 0° longitude, which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.

Back

space time compression

Front

the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems

Back

Section 2

(50 cards)

epidemiologic transition

Front

The shift from high death rates to low death rates in a population as a result of modern medical and sanitary developments. Also called the "mortality revolution"

Back

intra-regional migration

Front

Permanent movement within one region of a country.

Back

emigration

Front

Migration from a location (Exit migration)

Back

U.S. Census Bureau

Front

a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.

Back

time zone

Front

24, 15 degree sections that each represent a different hour of the day

Back

intervening obstacles

Front

Any forces or factors that may limit human migration.

Back

crude birth rate

Front

The number of live births per year per 1,000 people.

Back

demographic momentum

Front

this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. This is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model.

Back

exponential growth

Front

Growth whose rate becomes ever more rapid in proportion to the growing total number or size. Also called population growth at a "geometric rate"

Back

life expectancy

Front

A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live

Back

"why of where"

Front

Critical to geographers, the explanations for why a spatial pattern occurs

Back

toponym

Front

Place names given to certain features on the land such as settlements, terrain features, and streams.

Back

ethnicity

Front

Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.

Back

critical distance

Front

the distance beyond which cost, effort, and means strongly influence our willingness to travel

Back

activity space

Front

The space within which daily activity occurs.

Back

arithmetic growth

Front

population growth where population increases by the same amount over each time interval

Back

internal migration

Front

Permanent Movement within a particular country.

Back

awareness space

Front

Locations or places about which an individual has knowledge even without visiting all of them, includes activity space and additional areas newly encountered or about which one acquires information.

Back

inter-regional migration

Front

Permanent movement from one region of a country to another

Back

AIDS

Front

Immune system disease caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) which over a period of years weakens the capacity of the immune system to fight off infection so that weight loss and weakness set in and other afflictions such as cancer or pneumonia may hasten an infected person's demise

Back

in-migration

Front

the total number of immigrants who arrive in a country in a given time period

Back

endemic

Front

Native or confined to a particular region or people

Back

distance decay

Front

the effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction

Back

dislocation

Front

people forced from their home due to ethnic strife, war, or natural disasters

Back

infant mortality rate

Front

The percentage of children who die before their first birthday within a particular area or country.

Back

agricultural revolution

Front

The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering

Back

Thomas Malthus

Front

Eighteenth-century English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because, in his view, population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production.

Back

forced migration

Front

Human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate.

Back

demographic transition theory

Front

Multistage model, based on Western Europe's experience, of changes in population growth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization. High birth rates and death rates are followed by plunging death rates, producing a huge net population gain; this is followed by the convergence of birth rates and death rates at a low overall level

Back

intervening opportunity

Front

the presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.

Back

population density

Front

A measurement of the number of persons per unit land area.

Back

immigration

Front

Movement of individuals into a population (In migration)

Back

Industrial Revolution

Front

A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.

Back

gravity model

Front

A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other.

Back

demography

Front

Scientific study of human populations.

Back

demographic equation

Front

The formula that calculates population change. The formula finds the increase (or decrease) in a population. The formula is found by doing births minus deaths plus (or minus) net migration. This is important because it helps to determine which stage in the demographic transition model a country is in.

Back

arithmetic population density

Front

The population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area. The figure is derived by dividing the population of the areal unit by the number of square kilometers or miles that make up the unit

Back

dot maps

Front

Maps where one dot represents a certain number of a phenomenon, such as a population

Back

female infantcide

Front

The preference to have a son is so extreme that it reduces the survival rate of baby girls

Back

spatial organization

Front

organization according to location, position, or direction

Back

migration

Front

Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.

Back

arable land

Front

land suitable for growing crops

Back

spatial perspective

Front

observing variations in geographic phenomena across space

Back

linear growth

Front

Expansion that increases by the same amount during each time interval.

Back

carrying capacity

Front

Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support

Back

chain migration

Front

migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there

Back

doubling rate

Front

The length of time needed to double the population

Back

circulation

Front

Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis.

Back

topography

Front

A description of surface features of land.

Back

crude death rate

Front

The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.

Back

Section 3

(50 cards)

bilingualism

Front

The ability to speak two languages

Back

cultural relativism

Front

The practice of trying to understand a culture on its own terms and to judge a culture by its own standards.

Back

spatial interaction

Front

the movement of peoples, ideas, and commodities between different places

Back

culture region

Front

a portion of the earth's surface occupied by populations sharing recognizable and distinctive cultural characteristics

Back

push factors

Front

Incentives for potential migrants to leave a place, such as a harsh climate, economic recession, or political turmoil. Also called "centrifugal factors"

Back

assimilation

Front

Adopting the traits of another culture. Often happens over time when one immigrates into a new country.

Back

neo-Malthusians

Front

group who built on Malthus' theory and suggested that people wouldn't just starve for lack of food, but would have wars about food and other scarce resources

Back

creole

Front

a language that began as a pidgin language but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in a place of the mother tongue

Back

overpopulation

Front

The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.

Back

cultural transmission

Front

the process by which one generation passes culture to the next

Back

population concentrations

Front

Areas of the world with large population density.

Back

cultural geography

Front

Subfield of human geography that looks at how culture varies over space

Back

pandemic

Front

Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.

Back

acculturation

Front

(n.) the modification of the social patterns, traits, or structures of one group or society by contact with those of another; the resultant blend

Back

cultural determinism

Front

the belief that the culture in which we are raised determines who we are at emotional and behavioral levels. This supports the theory that environmental influences dominate who we are instead of biologically inherited traits.

Back

artifacts

Front

object made by human beings, either hand-made or mass-produced

Back

voluntary migration

Front

movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity; not forced.

Back

total fertility rate

Front

The average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years.

Back

culture system

Front

sharing enough cultural traits and complexes to be recognized as a distinctive cultural entity

Back

cultural landscape

Front

the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape.

Back

behaviors

Front

actions that people take

Back

culture complex

Front

a unique combination of culture traits for a particular culture group

Back

cultural diffusion

Front

The expansion and adoption of a cultural element, from its place of origin to a wider area.

Back

population explosion

Front

The rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever-shorter doubling times and accelerating rates of increase

Back

race

Front

A group of human beings distinguished by physical traits, blood types, genetic code patterns or genetically inherited characteristics.

Back

animism

Front

Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.

Back

natural increase

Front

Population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths. Natural increase of a does not reflect either emigrant or immigrant movements.

Back

refugees

Front

People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.

Back

cultural ecology

Front

The multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and the natural environment

Back

sustainability

Front

The ability to keep in existence or maintain. A sustainable ecosystem is one that can be maintained

Back

Baha'i

Front

Religion founded by Baha'ullah who declared himself as a prophet of God/"the promised one". Teachings: World peace through unity of all religions, live a simple life, dedication to serving others.

Back

beliefs

Front

specific statements that people hold to be true, almost always based on values

Back

cultural hearths

Front

the areas where civilizations first began that radiated the customs, innovations, and ideologies that culturally transformed the world

Back

step migration

Front

Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city

Back

population geography

Front

a division of human geography concerned with spatial variations in distribution, composition, growth, and movements of population.

Back

net-migration rate

Front

Difference between immigrants and emmigrants per 1,000 people

Back

contagious diffusion

Front

The spread of a disease, an innovation, or cultural traits through direct contact with another person or another place.

Back

Buddhism

Front

A religion founded in India by Siddhartha Gautama which teaches that the most important thing in life is to reach peace by ending suffering.

Back

space-time prism

Front

The set of all points that can be reached by an individual given a maximum possible speed from a starting point in space-time and an ending point in space-time.

Back

pull factors

Front

Factors that induce people to move to a new location. Also called "centripetal factors"

Back

physiological population density

Front

The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture

Back

population pyramid

Front

A model used in population geography to show the age and sex distribution of a particular population.

Back

restrictive population policies

Front

laws which discourage or punish people for having large families. (anti-natal policies)

Back

Ernst Ravenstein

Front

Created the laws of migration that state that most migrants move a short distance, move to an urban area, are adults, take the process in steps, and create a migration in the opposite direction

Back

out-migration

Front

the total number of immigrants who leave a country in a given time period

Back

migration selectivity

Front

Only people exhibiting certain characteristics in a population choosing to migrate

Back

stationary population level

Front

The level at which a national population ceases to grow

Back

zero population growth

Front

a condition in which the population of a country does not grow but remains stable. This condition comes about when the birth rate plus immigration equals the death rate plus emigration.

Back

one child policy

Front

A policy implemented by the Chinese government as a method of controlling the population.

Back

Confucianism

Front

A philosophy that adheres to the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. It shows the way to ensure a stable government and an orderly society in the present world and stresses a moral code of conduct.

Back

Section 4

(50 cards)

Durkheim's sacred and profane

Front

French sociologist Emile Durkheim, religion is important in explaining anything that surpasses the limits of our knowledge. As human beings, we define most objects as profane, or ordinary, but we define some things as sacred, or extraordinary, inspiring a sense of awe and reverence.

Back

pidgin

Front

Language that may develop when two groups of people with different languages meet. The pidgin has some characteristics of each language.

Back

linguistic fragmentation

Front

a condition in which many languages are spoken, each by a relatively small number of people

Back

Hinduism

Front

A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms

Back

folk life

Front

the composite culture, both material and non-material, that shapes the lives of folk societies

Back

shamanism

Front

tribal religion; involves community acceptance of a shaman, religious leader, healer, and worker of magic who can intercede with the spirit world

Back

language

Front

A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.

Back

Religious denominations

Front

divisions of branches that unite local groups in a single administrative body

Back

Religious branches

Front

large and basic division within a religion

Back

material culture

Front

tangible, physical items produced and used by members of a specific culture group and reflective of their traditions, lifestyles, and technologies

Back

norms

Front

rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members

Back

Sikhism

Front

the doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam

Back

humanism

Front

A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements in which ideologies replaced religion as key cultural components.

Back

dialect

Front

A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.

Back

Mahayana

Front

The name of the more mystical and larger of the two main Buddhist sects. This one originated in India in the 400s CE and gradually found its way north to the Silk road and into Central and East Asia.

Back

Torste Hagerstrand

Front

Swedish geographer. He is known for his work on migration, cultural diffusion and time geography.

Back

environmental determinism

Front

A doctrine that claims that cultural traits are formed and controlled by environmental conditions.

Back

Judaism

Front

A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament.

Back

culture trait

Front

A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban

Back

migrant diffusion

Front

Where the spread of cultural traits is slow enough to weaken in the place of origin by the time it reaches other areas.

Back

lingua franca

Front

A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages.

Back

language families

Front

Group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin

Back

Protestants

Front

A Christian that separated from the Roman Catholic Church during the Reformation; today any member of the Christian church founded on the principles of the Reformation

Back

isogloss

Front

A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate.

Back

Daoism

Front

Chinese religion that believes the world is always changing and is devoid of absolute morality or meaning. They accept the world as they find it, avoid futile struggles, and deviate as little as possible from 'the way' or 'path' of nature.

Back

monotheistic religion

Front

Belief system in which one supreme being is revered as creator and arbiter of all that exists in the universe

Back

independent inventions

Front

The term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other

Back

ethnic religion

Front

A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.

Back

relocation diffusion

Front

the spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another

Back

popular culture

Front

general mass of people primarily urban based, constantly adopting, conforming to, and quickly abandoning ever-changing common modes of behavior and fads of material and nonmaterial culture

Back

official langugae

Front

A language given by the country to the government for laws, reports, public places, ad objects (like road signs, currency, stamps, etc.)

Back

Roman Catholics

Front

This branch of Christianity arose because of the Roman's split by Emperor Diocletian.

Back

Eastern Orthodox

Front

The Christian religion of the Byzantine Empire in the middle east that formed from Christianity's schism between the remains of the western and eastern Roman Empire. The Christian church ruled by the Byzantine emperor and the patriarchs of various historically significant Christian centers/cities.

Back

hierarchical diffusion

Front

the spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places

Back

non-material culture

Front

Human creations, such as values, norms, knowledge, systems of government, language, and so on, that are not embodied in physical objects

Back

Indo-European language family

Front

Language family including the Germanic and Romance languages that is spoken by 50% of the world's people

Back

multilingualism

Front

societies in which two or more languages are in common use

Back

Religious sects

Front

relatively small groups that do not affiliate with the more mainstream denominations

Back

geographic region

Front

a location based on locational and environmental circumstances as well as cultural properties.

Back

diasporas

Front

Enclaves of ethnic groups settled outside of their homelands.

Back

extinct language

Front

A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.

Back

language sub-family

Front

group of languages with more commonality than a language family (indicates they have branched off more recently in history)

Back

ethnocentrism

Front

Belief in the superiority of one's nation or ethnic group.

Back

folk culture

Front

Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.

Back

Marxism

Front

the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded

Back

Shiite

Front

a member of one of the two major Muslim sects; believe that the descendants of Muhammad's daughter and son-in-law, Ali, are the true Muslim leaders

Back

linguistic geography

Front

the study of the character and spatial pattern of dialects and language

Back

Islam

Front

A monotheistic religion based on the belief that there is one God, Allah, and that Muhammad was Allah's prophet. Islam is based in the ancient city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the birthplace of Muhammad.

Back

folk culture region

Front

an area where many people who live in a land space share at least some traditions or customs

Back

regional identity

Front

An awareness of being a part of a group of people living in a culture region.

Back

Section 5

(50 cards)

enclaves

Front

Any small and relatively homogenous group or region surrounded by another larger and different group or region

Back

gerrymandering

Front

The drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent.

Back

frontiers

Front

lands just beyond the border of a country

Back

Tantrayana

Front

a major branch in Buddhism; located mainly in western China (Tibet) and Mongolia.

Back

symbols

Front

Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture.

Back

Cold War

Front

A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.

Back

colonies

Front

a group of people who leave their native country to form in a new land a settlement subject to, or connected with, the parent nation.

Back

European Constitution

Front

an international treaty intended to create a constitution for the EU

Back

resource dispute

Front

disagreement over the control or use of shared resources, such as boundary rivers or jointly claimed fishing grounds

Back

transculturation

Front

An equal exchange of traits or influence between two culture groups occurs

Back

core-periphery

Front

A model that describes how economic, political, and/or cultural power is spatially distributed between dominant core regions, and more marginal or dependent semi-peripheral and peripheral regions.

Back

confederal system

Front

A system consisting of a league of independent states, each having essentially sovereign powers. The central government created by such a league has only limited powers over the states.

Back

boundary

Front

invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory

Back

standard language

Front

The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.

Back

centripetal force

Front

An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state

Back

traditional religion

Front

a religion that has originality and is not modernized, also known as "indigenous," "animism," "primal" or "tribal"

Back

toponymy

Front

the study of place names of a region, or toponyms

Back

European Union

Front

An international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members.

Back

democratization

Front

The process of establishing representative and accountable forms of government led by popularly elected officials.

Back

command economy

Front

An economic system in which the government controls a country's economy.

Back

Sunni

Front

"Traditionalists," the most popular branch of Islam; Sunnis believe in the legitimacy of the early caliphs, compared to the Shiite belief that only a descendant of Ali can lead.

Back

Balkanization

Front

The political term used when referring to the fragmentation or breakup of a region or country into smaller regions or countries. The term comes from the Balkan wars, where the country of Yugoslavia was broken up in to six countries between 1989 and 1992.

Back

time-distance decay

Front

The declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or source

Back

fragmentation

Front

divisions based on ethnic or cultural identity

Back

ethnic force

Front

centrifugal forces associated with ethnic differences (language & religion) which can cause the break up of a state

Back

fragmented states

Front

a state that is not continuous but rather separated parts.

Back

devolution

Front

The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.

Back

core area

Front

the national or world districts of concentrated economic power, wealth, innovation, and advanced technology

Back

European Monetary Union

Front

The agreement among the participating member states of the European Union to adopt a single hard currency and monetary system. (the euro)

Back

centrifugal force

Front

a force that divides people and countries

Back

forward capital

Front

A capital city placed in a remote or peripheral area for economic, strategic, or symbolic reasons.

Back

Theraveda

Front

Traditional and conservative branch of Buddhism focusing on merit accumulation and sharin

Back

syncretism

Front

The unification or blending of opposing people, ideas, or practices, frequently in the realm of religion. For example, when Christianity was adopted by people in a new land, they often incorporate it into their existing culture and traditions.

Back

ethnonationalism

Front

the tendency for an ethnic group to see itself as a distinct nation with a right to autonomy or independence. A fundamental centrifugal force.

Back

universalizing religion

Front

A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.

Back

territorial disputes

Front

disagreement between states over the control of surface area

Back

cultural boundary

Front

A boundary that follows the distribution of cultural characteristics.

Back

stimulus diffusion

Front

The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.

Back

elongated states

Front

A state with a long, narrow shape. (Example. Chile)

Back

positional disputes

Front

involve the disagreement over interpretation of position of the boundary line; occur most often with physical boundaries

Back

federal system

Front

A government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments

Back

functional dispute

Front

(AKA boundary dispute) a disagreement between neighboring states over policies to be applied to their common border; often induced by differing customs regulations, movement of nomadic groups, or illegal immigration or emigration

Back

binational or multinational state

Front

State that contains more than one nation (example the Soviet Union)

Back

consequent boundaries

Front

boundary that coincides with a particular cultural divide (such as religion, language, or ethnicity); a.k.a. cultural boundaries

Back

exclaves

Front

A segment of land that is apart from the mainland of its country (Hawaii and Alaska)

Back

electoral geography

Front

the study of the geographical elements of the organization and results of elections

Back

compact states

Front

A state that possesses a roughly circular, oval, or rectangular territory in which the distance from the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions.

Back

symbolic landscape

Front

landscapes that express values, beliefs, and meanings of a particular culture.

Back

economic force

Front

centrifugal forces associated with economic inequalities that lead to the break up of a state

Back

geometric boundary

Front

Political boundaries that are defined and delimited by straight lines.

Back

Section 6

(50 cards)

minority/majority districting

Front

Rearranging districts to allow a minority representative to be elected

Back

geopolitics

Front

The study of the interplay between political relations and the territorial context in which they occur.

Back

territorial morphology

Front

A state's geographical shape, which can affect its spatial cohesion and political viability.

Back

Security Council

Front

Five permanent members( US, UK, France, China, USSR) with veto power in the UN. Promised to carry out UN decisions with their own forces.

Back

heartland theory

Front

Hypothesis proposed by Halford MacKinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world.

Back

rimland theory

Front

Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide the base for world conquest.

Back

politicization of religion

Front

Use of religious principles to promote political ends

Back

institutions

Front

Complex social organizations such as governments, economies, and education systems

Back

unitary state

Front

An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials

Back

stateless nation

Front

a group of people with a common political identity who do not have a territorially defined, sovereign country of their own

Back

nation

Front

A sense of unity binding the people of a state together; devotion to the interests of a particular country or nation, an identification with the state and an acceptance of national goals.

Back

market economy

Front

Economic decisions are made by individuals or the open market.

Back

internal boundaries

Front

physical, cultural, or geometric boundaries within a country (such as provinces or states)

Back

median-line principle

Front

an approach to dividing and creating boundaries at the mid-point between two places.

Back

supranational organization

Front

Organization of three or more states to promote shared objectives. (Example U.N. or E.U.)

Back

perforated states

Front

a state whose territory is interrupted by a separate, independent state totally contained within its borders

Back

agribusiness

Front

The set of economic and political relationships that organize food production for commercial purposes. It includes activities ranging from seed production, to retailing, to consumption of agricultural products.

Back

primate city

Front

The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.

Back

privatization

Front

To change from government or public ownership or control to private ownership or control.

Back

politics

Front

Method of maintaining, managing, and gaining control of government (who gets what, when, and how)

Back

sovereignty

Front

Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.

Back

integration

Front

the act of uniting or bringing together, especially people of different races

Back

Columbian Exchange

Front

The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.

Back

multicore state

Front

A state that possesses more than one core or dominant region, be it economic, political, or cultural.

Back

three pillars

Front

Informal term denoting the main areas in which the EU has worked since the Maastricht Treaty. 1. the traditional involvement in trade and other economic matters 2. cooperation in justice and home affairs 3. the desire to create a Common Foreign and Security Policy which is the most visionary and controversial aspect of the EU today

Back

nationalism

Front

A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country

Back

shatter belts

Front

Zone of great cultural complexity containing many small cultural groups who find refuge in areas of cultural tension.

Back

political geography

Front

The spatial analysis of political phenomena and processes.

Back

Friedrich Ratzel

Front

Organic Theory of Nations - nations act like living organisms - must grow and will eventually decline

Back

desertification

Front

The process by which fertile land becomes desert,typically as a result of drought, deforestation, or agriculture.

Back

separatist movement

Front

refers to the social movements for a particular group of people to separate from the dominant political institution under which they suffer

Back

biotechnology

Front

A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.

Back

monetary policy

Front

Government policy that attempts to manage the economy by controlling the money supply and thus interest rates.

Back

spatial force

Front

The breakup of a state at its margins due to distance and remoteness

Back

marketization

Front

the term that describes the state's recreation of a market in which property, labor, good, and services can all function in a competitive environment to determine their value.

Back

physical boundary

Front

Political boundaries that correspond with prominent physical features such as mountain ranges or rivers.

Back

"third wave" of democratization

Front

Most recent wave of democracy which began in the 1970s; characterized by the defeat of dictatorial or totalitarian rulers from South America to Eastern Europe to some parts of Africa

Back

microstates

Front

States with very small land areas

Back

commercial agriculture

Front

term used to describe large scale farming and ranching operations that employ vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory-type labor, and the latest technology

Back

agricultural hearths

Front

areas of settlement during the neolithic period, especially along major rivers, from where farming and cultivation of livestock eminates

Back

nation-state

Front

A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality

Back

imperialism

Front

A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.

Back

relative location

Front

The position of a place in relation to another place

Back

government

Front

the leadership and institutions that make policy decisions for a country

Back

political culture

Front

An overall set of values widely shared within a society

Back

mixed economy

Front

An economy in which private enterprise exists in combination with a considerable amount of government regulation and promotion.

Back

irredentism

Front

a policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion by a country aimed at a group of its nationals living in a neighboring country

Back

landlocked states

Front

A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.

Back

cereal grains

Front

Corn, wheat, rice, and other grasses

Back

states

Front

countries with defined boundaries and sovereignty to control what happens within those borders

Back

Section 7

(50 cards)

metes and bounds

Front

A term used in describing the boundary lines of land, setting forth all the boundary lines together with their terminal points and angles. Metes (length or measurements) and Bounds (boundaries) description is often used when a great deal of accuracy is required.

Back

Mediterranean agriculture

Front

An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados, olives, and a host of nuts, fruits, and vegetables comprise profitable agricultural operations.

Back

horticulture

Front

the cultivation of plants for subsistence through non-intensive use of land and labor

Back

pampas

Front

A grasslands region in Argentina and Uruguay

Back

mercantilism

Front

An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought

Back

wet (lowland) rice

Front

type of intensive subsistence farming found in the large population concentrations of East and South Asia. The crop requires a great deal of time and attention, but under ideal conditions it can provide large amounts of food per unit of land.

Back

Green Revolution

Front

The worldwide campaign to increase agricultural production from the 1940s to 60s, stimulated by new fertilizers and strains of wheat such as that by Norman Borlaug. The movement saved millions from starvation.

Back

location theory

Front

a logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of economic activities & the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated

Back

post-industrial societies

Front

Societies where technology supports a Service-and-Information based economy

Back

wattle

Front

poles and sticks woven tightly together and then covered with mud. Many African houses are constructed with this way with a thick thatched roof.

Back

subsistence agriculture

Front

Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family

Back

primary sector

Front

The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.

Back

extensive subsistence agriculture

Front

consists of any agricultural economy in which the crops and/or animals are used nearly exclusively for local or family consumption on large areas of land and minimal labor input per acre

Back

seed drill

Front

created by Jethro Tull (not the British rock band), it allowed farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at specific depths; this boosted crop yields

Back

secondary sector

Front

The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.

Back

organic agriculture

Front

The use of crop rotation, natural fertilizers such as manure, and biological pest control, as opposed to artificial fertilizers,pesticides, hormones, antibiotics, additives, and genetically modified organisms, to promote healthy vigorous crops.

Back

labor intensive agriculture

Front

Type of agriculture that requires large levels of manual labor to be successful.

Back

irrigation

Front

A way of supplying water to an area of land

Back

nomadism

Front

A way of life, forced by a scarcity of resources, in which groups of people continually migrate to find pastures and water.

Back

rectangular survey system

Front

Also called the Public Land Survey, the system was used by the US Land Office Survey to parcel land west of the Appalachian Mountains. The system divides land into a series of rectangular parcels.

Back

long-lot survey system

Front

distinct regional approach to land surveying found in the Canadian Maritimes, parts of Quebec, Louisiana, and Texas whereby land is divided into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals

Back

Second Agricultural Revolution

Front

dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, the Second Agricultural Revolution witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm products.

Back

hunters and gatherers

Front

people who survive by eating animals that they have caught or plants they have gathered

Back

vegetative planting

Front

earliest form of plant cultivation; reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants, such as cutting stems and dividing roots

Back

truck farming

Front

Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities.

Back

seed agriculture

Front

planting with seeds, starting during the first agricultural revolution, diffused from Southwest Asia across Europe and through North Africa. It also diffused eastward to India from Southwest Asia. Another hearth is southern Mexico and northern Peru, and diffused through the Western Hemisphere.

Back

villages

Front

A small number of people who live in a cluster of houses in a rural area, slightly larger than a hamlet

Back

primogeniture

Front

A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.

Back

extensive agriculture

Front

a crop or livestock system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit area of land. May be part of either a subsistence or a commercial economy

Back

plantation farming

Front

A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country

Back

specialization

Front

A focus on a particular activity or area of study

Back

patriarchal system

Front

System in which men hold power in the family, economy, and government

Back

enclosure

Front

fencing or hedging large blocks of land for experiments with new techniques of farming

Back

intensive subsistence agriculture

Front

A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.

Back

shifting cultivation

Front

Also known as swidden agriculture; A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.

Back

pastoral nomadism

Front

A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.

Back

Third Agriculture Revolution

Front

'green revolution' rapid diffusion of new ag techniques between 1970's and 1980's, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers

Back

mixed crop and livestock farming

Front

most common form of commercial agriculture in the US west of the Appalachia Mtns. Farmers grow crops and raise livestock on the same land spread, with most of the crops fed to animals rather than people. Income comes from the sale of animal products, such as beef, milk, and eggs.

Back

Neolithic Revolution

Front

(10,000 - 8,000 BCE) The development of agriculture and the domestication of animals as a food source. This led to the development of permanent settlements and the start of civilization.

Back

hamlets

Front

smallest of urban settlements with counted population

Back

tertiary sector

Front

The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment.

Back

dispersed settlement pattern

Front

A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages

Back

erosion

Front

Processes by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and carried away (i.e. weathering, glaciation)

Back

sustainable agriculture

Front

Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil- restoring crops with cash crops and reducing in-puts of fertilizer and pesticides.

Back

milkshed

Front

ring surrounding a city from which milk can be supplied without spoiling

Back

industrial agriculture

Front

intensive farming practices involving mechanization and mass production

Back

nucleated settlement pattern

Front

settlement clustered around a central point, such as a village green or church. Nucleation is fostered by defense considerations, localized water supply, the incidence of flooding, or rich soils so that farmers can easily get to their smaller, productive fields while continuing to live in the village.

Back

quaternary sector

Front

Service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital. Examples include finance, administration, insurance, and legal services.

Back

job specialization

Front

The process by which a division of labor occurs as different workers specialize in different tasks over time

Back

von Thunen's model

Front

explains and predicts agricultural land use. more INTENSIVE land uses closer to the market place. more EXTENSIVE land farther from the market place. Inner ring is (City), 2nd (Intensive Agriculture), 3rd (Forest resources), 4th (Grain Farming), 5th (Livestock farming

Back

Section 8

(50 cards)

new international division of labor

Front

Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid less skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries.

Back

newly industrializing country

Front

Countries that have experienced economic growth so that they appear to be somewhere in between MDC (more developed country) and LDC ( less developed country) status.

Back

friction of distance

Front

the increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance

Back

site factors

Front

Location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital.

Back

dependency theory

Front

a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones

Back

deindustrialization

Front

process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment

Back

Pacific Rim

Front

Region including Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan; typified by rapid growth rates, expanding exports, and industrialization; either Chinese or strongly influenced by Confucian values; considerable reliance on government planning and direction, limitations on dissent and instability.

Back

labor intensive industries

Front

An industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses.

Back

GDP per capita

Front

Gross domestic product divided by the number of people in the population.

Back

international division of labor

Front

The process where the assembing procedures for a product are spread out through different parts of the world

Back

Northeast District (China)

Front

Manchuria, earliest industrial heartland centered on the region's coal and iron deposits near the city of Shenyang.

Back

bulk-gaining industries

Front

An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs.

Back

Rostow's 4 Stages of Modernization

Front

1. Traditional Stage 2. Take-off Stage 3. Drive to technological maturity 4. High mass consumption

Back

locational interdependence theory

Front

Theory developed by economist Harold Hotelling that suggests competitors, in trying to maximize sales, will seek to constrain each other's territory as much as possible which will therefore lead them to locate adjacent to one another in the middle of their collective customer base.

Back

greenhouse effect

Front

Natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases

Back

agglomeration

Front

Grouping together of many firms from the same industry in a single area for collective or cooperative use of infrastructure and sharing of labor resources.

Back

break-of-bulk

Front

a location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another.

Back

compressed modernity

Front

Rapid economic and political change that transformed the country into a stable nation with democratizing political institutions, a growing economy, and an expanding web of nongovernmental institutions.

Back

Kanto Plain

Front

Japan's dominant region of industrialization, included Tokyo and nearby cities to form a huge metropolitan area

Back

substitution principle

Front

suggests that business owners can juggle expenses, as long as labor, land rents, transportation, and other costs don't all go up at one time.

Back

NAFTA

Front

North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada.

Back

spring wheat area

Front

Area in which winters are too severe for winter wheat (Montana, North/South Dakota)

Back

Special Economic Zones

Front

government-designated areas in China where foreign investment is allowed and capitalistic ventures are encouraged

Back

fossil fuels

Front

Coal, oil, natural gas, and other fuels that are ancient remains of plants and animals.

Back

sustainable development

Front

Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Back

maquiladora district

Front

manufacturing zone created in the 1960s in northern Mexico just south of the border with the US; workers in the district have produced goods primarily for consumers in the U.S.

Back

less developed country

Front

Also known as a developing country, a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development.

Back

Meiji Restoration

Front

The state-sponsored industrialization and westernization effort in the late 19th century that also involved the elimination of the Shogunate and power being handed over to the Japanese Emperor, who had previously existed as mere spiritual/symbolic figure.

Back

space-time compression

Front

The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems

Back

modernization model

Front

a model of economic development most closely associated with the work of economist Walter Rostow. The modernization model (sometimes referred to as modernization theory) maintains that all countries go through five interrelated stages of development, which culminate in an economic state of self-sustained economic growth and high levels of mass consumption

Back

economic geography

Front

the branch of systematic geography concerned with how people support themselves, with the spatial patterns of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, and with the areal variation of economic variation of economic activities over the surface of the earth

Back

single market manufacturers

Front

located near the market--save money on transportation, aka products sold primary in one location

Back

distance decay

Front

The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.

Back

acid rain

Front

Rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water.

Back

more developed country

Front

Also known as a relatively developed county or a developed country, a country that has progressed in relatively far along a continuum of development.

Back

industrialization

Front

The development of industries for the machine production of goods.

Back

deglomeration

Front

the process of deconcentration; the location of industrial or other activities away from established agglomerations in response to growing costs of congestion, competition, and regulation

Back

winter wheat area

Front

Area in which grain is planted in autumn, survives the winter, and ripens the following summer (Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma)

Back

capitalist world economy

Front

The single world system, which emerged in the 16th century, committed to production for sale, with the object of maximizing profits rather than supplying domestic needs

Back

Infrastructure

Front

the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g., buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.

Back

W.W. Rostow

Front

a pioneering advocate in the 1950's that created the 5 stage model of development (Modernization Theory)

Back

Gross Domestic Policy (GDP)

Front

the sum total of the value of all goods and services produced in a nation.

Back

economic development

Front

Process of improving economic/material conditions of people through the diffusion of knowledge and technology

Back

global warming

Front

An increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)

Back

conglomerate corporations

Front

Massive corporation operating a collection of smaller companies that provide it with specific services in its production process.

Back

export-oriented industrialization

Front

a mercantilist strategy for economic growth in which a country seeks out technologies and develops industries focused specifically on the export market

Back

Oligarchs (Japan)

Front

industrial and military leaders that came to political power, Japan modernized industries, organized armed forces, and transformed education and transportation systems to follow the western model. (see Meiji Restoration)

Back

bulk-reducing industries

Front

An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs.

Back

footloose industry

Front

industry in which the cost of transporting both raw materials and finished product is not important for the location of firms

Back

trading blocs

Front

A group of neighboring countries that promote trade with each other and erect barriers to limit trade with other blocs

Back

Section 9

(50 cards)

megalopolis

Front

Several, metropolitan areas that were originally separate but that have joined together to form a large, sprawling urban complex.

Back

micropolitan statistical area

Front

An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.

Back

Walter Christaller

Front

German geographer who in the early 1930s first formulated Central Place Theory as a series of models designed to explain the spatial distribution of urban centers. Crucial to his theory is the fact that different goods and services vary both in threshold and in range.

Back

Homer Hoyt

Front

Known for the "Sector Model (Theory of Axial Development)" that modified the concentric zone model of city development. Suggested that various groups expand outward from the city center along railroads, highways, and other transportation arteries.

Back

Nonbasic sectors

Front

The part of a settlements economy that sells their products primarily to consumers in the community

Back

mercantile city

Front

A city in which a central square became the focus of the city flanked by royal, religious, public, and private buildings: streets leading to such squares formed the beginnings of a downtown

Back

James Watt

Front

Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819).

Back

central business district (CBD)

Front

The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge.

Back

formative era

Front

The period between about 7000 and 5000 bc which noted the beginnings of the development of states and urbanization

Back

in situ accretion

Front

where less expensive homes and businesses seem to be in a chronic state of ongoing construction and renovation.

Back

value added productivity

Front

The gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy

Back

city-state

Front

self-governing communities that include the nearby countryside. First established in the area around the eastern Mediterranean Sea about 2500 years ago by the forerunners of the ancient Greeks.

Back

Immanuel Wallerstein

Front

Geographer and dependency theorist who explained economic development in 1974 using a model of capitalist world economy. (Core-Periphery model; divided the world into three types according to how they fit into the global economy)

Back

ghettos

Front

undesirable neighborhoods, associated with dilapidated housing, high crime rates, and inadequate schools

Back

feminization of poverty

Front

The increasing concentration of poverty among women, especially unmarried women and their children

Back

Alfred Weber

Front

Twentieth-century German geographer who created the least cost theory to predict the locational decisions made by industrial operations. (wrote "Theory of the Location of Industries;" explained location of industries in terms of three factors: transportation, labor, agglomeration)

Back

Bosnywash

Front

the heavily populated area extending from Boston to Washington and including New York City, Philadelphia, and Baltimore.

Back

city

Front

An urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit.

Back

hierarchy of central places

Front

according to CPT (Central Place Theory) larger market areas are based in larger settlements, fewer in number, and farther apart; hierarchy of settlements = city, town, village, hamlet

Back

edge cities

Front

A term introduced by Joel Garreau in order to describe the shifting focus of urbanization in the United States away from the CBD toward new loci of economic activity at the urban fringe. These cities are characterized by extensive amounts of office and retail space, few residential areas, and modern buildings

Back

gentrification

Front

A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area.

Back

census tract

Front

Small county subdivisions, usually containing between 2,500 and 8,000 persons, delineated by the U.S. Census Bureau as areas of relatively uniform population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions.

Back

metropolitan area

Front

Within the United States, an urban area consisting of one or more whole country units, usually containing several urbanized areas, or suburbs, that all act together as a coherent economic whole.

Back

metropolitan statistical area

Front

In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.

Back

Councils of government

Front

cooperative agencies consisting of representatives from local governments in the region

Back

E.W. Burgess

Front

Sociologists who created the Concentric Zone Model in 1923; it views cities as growing outward from a central area in a series of concentric rings

Back

peripheral model

Front

A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.

Back

center city

Front

Cities that provide goods and services for the surrounding area.

Back

transnational corporations

Front

A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.

Back

export activities

Front

the process of exporting goods from a region

Back

manufacturing city

Front

A city overrun with factories, supply facilities, the expansion of transport systems, and the construction of tenements for a growing labor force.

Back

ghettoization

Front

A process occurring in many inner cities in which they become dilapidated centers of poverty, as affluent whites move out to the suburbs and immigrants and people of color vie for scarce jobs and resources.

Back

Base ratio

Front

A ratio between workers employed in the basic sector and those employed in the nonbasic sector

Back

multiplier effect

Front

An effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent.

Back

physical city

Front

a continuous development that contains a central city and many nearby cities, towns, and suburbs

Back

nucleated

Front

a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings (e.g., Asian longhouse)

Back

rush hours

Front

The four consecutive 15-minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic

Back

megastores

Front

Huge stores with a variety of products designed for one-stop shopping. They are usually organized as chains, and originated in the suburbs due to the availability and low cost of land.

Back

disamenity sector

Front

The very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not even connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs or drug lords.

Back

variable revenue analysis

Front

An approach to industrial location theory concerned with spatial variations in revenue. It concentrates on the demand side of the industrial location problem, as opposed to the cost side addressed in variable cost analysis.

Back

Basic sectors

Front

The part of a settlements economy that sells their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement

Back

multiple nuclei model

Front

Created by Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman in the 1940s, it's a model that suggests that the CBD is losing its dominant position. A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities. There are nine different zones (see image)

Back

rank-size rule

Front

In a model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy.

Back

complementary regions

Front

the merging of two regions for benefit

Back

public housing

Front

Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes.

Back

megacity

Front

A metropolitan area with a total population of over 10 million people according to the United Nations

Back

greenbelts

Front

A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.

Back

concentric zone model

Front

Model that describes urban environments as a series of rings of distinct lands using radiating out from a central core, or central business district. Developed by E.W. Burgess

Back

Harris and Ullman

Front

developed multiple nuclei model explaining that large cities developed by spreading from several places of growth, not just one

Back

central place theory

Front

A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.

Back

Section 10

(21 cards)

town

Front

a nucleated settlement that contains a CBD but that is small and less functionally complex than a city

Back

urban area

Front

A dense core of census tracts, densely settled suburbs, and low-density land that links the dense suburbs with the core

Back

world city

Front

Centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce.

Back

transportation centers

Front

cities where major routes converge (roads, railroads, sea traffic, and air transportation)

Back

special-function cities

Front

cities are dominated by one activity such as mining, manufacturing or recreation and serving national and international markets.

Back

urban empire

Front

A nation or group of territories ruled by a single, powerful leader or emperor (Ex. Rome)

Back

urban geography

Front

focuses on how cities function, their internal systems and structures, and the external influences on them

Back

settlement geography

Front

the patterns of settlement on the earth's surface

Back

urban elite

Front

a group of decision makers and organizers who controlled the resources, and sometimes the lives of others

Back

smart growth

Front

Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland.

Back

suburbs

Front

Residential areas surrounding a city. Shops and businesses moved to suburbia as well as people.

Back

zone of maturity

Front

Area close to the middle of the concentric zone model where middle class families reside, they generally maintain their homes well enough to keep them from deteriorating

Back

zoning ordinance

Front

A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.

Back

Louis Wirth

Front

1930s social scientist who wrote that the city was a center of distant, cold interpersonal interaction, and that as a result, the urban dweller experienced alienation.

Back

sector model

Front

A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).

Back

zone in transition

Front

name given to the second ring of the concentric zone model, which surrounds the CBD, in the concentric zone model. This place typically contains industry and poor-quality housing

Back

social area analysis

Front

Statistical analysis used to identify where people of similar living standards, ethnic background, and life style live within an urban area.

Back

urban influence zone

Front

an area outside of a city that is nevertheless affected by the city

Back

sprawl

Front

Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.

Back

urban hierarchy

Front

A ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions.

Back

urban renewal

Front

Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.

Back